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What Luther Said
When Martin Luther stood up for his ideas at the Diet of Worms, did he really say, "Here I stand"?
As noted in the "This Week in Christian History" listings below, it was indeed this week, in 1521, when young Martin Luther was called before Holy Roman Emperor Charles V at the Diet of Worms ("diet" meaning a formal meeting, not a weight-loss plan, and Worms being a city south of Frankfurt). Luther thought he would have a chance to defend his ideas. Charles would only accept an ironclad recantation. What Charles got was Luther's defiant "Here I Stand" speech-or did he?
Dr. Scott H. Hendrix, author of Luther and the Papacy: Stages in a Reformation Conflict (Fortress, 1981), investigated this question for Christian History issue 34: Luther's Early Years. Hendrix notes that Luther caused such a sensation that all sorts of tales about him circulated, sometimes traveling faster than reliable facts. The speech story apparently received some quick touch-up treatment. Hendrix writes:
In April 1521, Luther appeared before Emperor Chrales V to defend what he had taught and written. At the end of his speech, the story goes, he spoke the famous words, "Here I stand; I can do no other. God help me."
The earliest printed version of Luther's address added these words, which were not recorded on the spot. It's possible they are genuine, but for almost a half century now, most scholars have believed they were probably not spoken by Luther.
A second misunderstanding arises when the words "Here I stand" are quoted as evidence of Luther's modern stand against the medieval powers of church and empire. Luther's speech was not a defiant, solitary protest, but a calm, reasoned account of why he had written the books piled on the table before him and why he could not recant their content.
"Luther asserted that his conscience was captive to the Word of God and that he could not go against conscience. This was not, however, a modern plea for the supremacy of the individual conscience or for religious freedom. Though already excommunicated by Rome, Luther saw himself as a sworn teacher of Scripture who must advocate the right of all Christians to hear and live by the gospel."
Without "Here I stand," is Luther's shining moment forever dulled, like the March on Washington without "I have a dream" or the Gettysburg Address without "Four score and seven years"? Hardly. In his seminal Luther: Man Between God and the Devil (English edition Yale, 1989), Reformation scholar Heiko Oberman renders Luther's speech like this:
Unless I am convinced by the testimony of the Holy Scriptures or by evident reason-for I can believe neither pope nor councils alone, as it is clear that they have erred repeatedly and contradicted themselves-I consider myself convicted by the testimony of Holy Scripture, which is my basis; my conscience is captive to the Word of God. Thus I cannot and will not recant, because acting against one's conscience is neither safe nor sound. God help me. Amen.
Whoever first printed that speech and added the famous phrase apparently wanted very much to stand by it. Luther could hardly have minded.
* CH issue 34 can be purchased here:http://christianhistorystore.com/ch34earlyluther.html.
Copyright © 2002 by the author or Christianity Today/Christian History magazine.
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