To Have and to Hold: The Feminine Mystique at Work in a Happy Marriage, by Jill Renich (Zondervan, 1972, 145 pp., $3.95), Risk and Chance in Marriage, by Bernard Harnik (Word, 1972, 179 pp., $4.95), How to Make Your Marriage Exciting, by Charles and Frances Hunter (Regal, 1972, 162 pp., $1.45 pb), Everything You Need to Know to Stay Married and Like It, by Bennard Wiese and Urban Steinmetz (Zondervan, 1972, 222 pp., $4.95), and Liberated Love, by Chester Pennington (Pilgrim, 1972, 127 pp., $4.95), are reviewed by Robert K. Bower, professor of practical theology and pastoral counseling, Fuller Theological Seminary, Pasadena, California.
Of these books dealing with marriage, one is written for Christian wives (husbands may read it with profit also), two for young and middle-aged married couples, and two for young persons who are contemplating marriage or are newly married.
In To Have and to Hold, Jill Renich (the daughter of Dr. and Mrs. R. A. Torrey, Jr.) writes to other women out of her twenty-seven years’ experience as a wife and mother. In a day when women are reassessing their roles, this volume presents a view of the Christian wife who knows how to accept herself as a woman and how to be a truly helpful helpmate without losing her individuality. Her understanding of sexual responsibility in marriage is biblical and balanced. Perhaps her best chapters are the last two, in which she deals with problems usually avoided or overlooked by other writers: absentee husbands, job-hopping husbands, uncommunicative husbands, Dr. Jekyll-Mr. Hyde husbands, and husbands who have failed. As a brief but realistic handbook for Christian wives on how to cope with the problems of normal marriage, this volume is a pleasure to recommend.
The author of Risk and Chance in Marriage is a physician who gradually moved into full-time marital and family counseling as he saw the need. Dr. Harnik is also chairman of the Swiss Board of Christian Doctors and is associated with Dr. Paul Tournier in Geneva.
The general outline of the book is developmental, following the individual through the stages of marriage crisis. Some of the subjects Harnik deals with are emotional and sexual adjustment in marriage, keeping romance in a marriage, married life after the children have left home, handling infidelity, and the twilight years of life. It is obvious that he has developed his ideas through counseling hundreds of cases, and he suggests realistic solutions to the kinds of marital problems that commonly arise. He refers to several basic concepts of Freud and Jung but only insofar as these are compatible with Christian values. He finds premarital sex, probation marriage, group marriage, and group sex all seriously deficient on Christian and psychological grounds.
In How to Make Your Marriage Exciting, the Hunters discuss the Christian qualities a husband and wife need to make a marriage satisfying, such as honesty, love, patience, courtesy, and forgiveness. This is a story of a widow and widower who married in middle-age when both were fairly well established in their professional roles (she a writer, he a businessman). It should appeal to Christians who find themselves in somewhat similar circumstances. Younger couples in process of personality formation, career stabilization, sexual adjustment, and possible financial crisis would probably find the material relevant but in a limited way. The Hunters write from a light-hearted perspective, and many overly serious Christian couples could profit from reading the book.
In the first of two books designed for those forming their views of marriage, Everything You Need to Know to Stay Married and Like It, Wiese and Steinmetz deal quite adequately with money, maturity, communication, and child-rearing as well as with more psychological subjects such as conditioning influences, defense mechanisms, and the need for self-disclosure. There are several inaccuracies in what they say about sexual functioning and anatomy; the inferences a reader might make from this misinformation could hinder rather than enhance sexual adjustment. On the whole this volume is quite helpful and conservative.
The major theme of Liberated Love is that the traditional views of love, sex, marriage, and the family are still the most logical and meaningful. Insights and interpretations from Eric Fromm, Rollo May, and other psychologists are presented along with those that Pennington (professor of preaching and worship at Iliff School of Theology) gained from his own experience. Authority for the views presented tends to be derived primarily from human experience but with significant reference to the story of creation and its sexual meanings. The book might appeal most to young people who prefer not to accept the Scriptures as their only source for discovering the meaning of sexuality. It is creative and interesting.
Navigating A Middle Course
Religious Liberty in the United States: The Development of Church-State Thought Since the Revolutionary Era, by Elwyn A. Smith (Fortress, 1972, 386 pp., $10.95), is reviewed by Erling Jorstad, professor of history, St. Olaf College, Northfield, Minnesota.
This is a timely and helpful contribution to our understanding of the theological and political ideas that created the tradition of religious liberty in American church-state relations. Rather than attempt to revise the standard work by Anson Phelps Stokes (later edited by Leo Pfeffer), Professor Smith of Temple University presents a sharply focused, superbly researched study into the history of those ideas that he finds behind the three traditions concerning religious liberty: the separatist tradition, the Catholic tradition, and the constitutional tradition. Using the skills of an intellectual historian, he traces the development of religious liberty among the leading spokesmen of these schools.
Each tradition is examined chronologically from the time of the Revolution to the present. Smith asks each of the men whom he studies his views on religious liberty and how he can justify these on the bases of his theological and philosophical convictions. In this way we get a fresh reading of such familiar thinkers as Isaac Backus, James Madison, Timothy Dwight, Horace Bushnell, John Carroll, John Ireland, and John Courtney Murray, to name only a few.
Smith also asks the same questions, in part III, of those Supreme Court justices who wrote opinions on the landmark religious-liberty cases. By this method he adds considerably to our understanding of the theology and philosophy that contributed to such decisive cases as Zorach v. Clauson and Engle v. Vitale.
In the final chapter, Smith sheds his role as impartial historian and presents his own conclusions on what the title calls “The Meaning of Separation of Church and State.” Here he comes to terms with the toughest question of all: How can the state remain neutral on theology but still concern itself with “socially significant conduct that is religiously grounded”? Smith makes it clear that he does not want the state to remain indifferent to the effect of socially significant ethical doctrines. He suggests that expert church and constitutional authorities, drawing on the traditions of the past, establish guidelines to keep any solutions strictly within the realm of constitutional law.
Smith says that when church bodies speak and act in areas of public significance they should be treated by the state solely in their civil or secular character. That is, they should have no special protection or immunities once they enter into the arena of public debate on social issues. But Smith states that this should not cause the state to withdraw the churches’ tax exemption. As a solution to this thorny problem he suggests that ecclesiastical property-holders “cut their taxable property to a level at which they could afford to pay their taxes.”
Smith concludes with what strikes me as a sound middle-of-the-road course for the future. Noting that extremists who want even more separation of church and state (no chaplains, no prayers in the legislatures, and so on) and those who favor increasing state aid to religious institutions (to parochial schools, for instance) are attracting the most attention at the moment, he finds that only a middle ground between “favor and hostility” is possible. He wisely cautions all concerned to avoid setting up too rigid standards and definitions. The future of religious liberty is bright, he concludes, so long as its practitioners continue to navigate from those charts of tradition that have long served this nation well.
Religion May Be Hazardous to Your Health, by Eli S. Chesen (Peter H. Wyden, 1972, 145 pp., $4.95), is reviewed by Orville S. Walters, clinical professor of psychiatry, University of Illinois, Peoria.
The author of this book is identified on the dust jacket as a psychiatric resident in an unnamed medical center who has completed “an internship in psychiatry”—perhaps halfway through psychiatric training. He was raised in the Jewish faith, and the best chapter in his book is one describing the tensions of achieving identity in a Jewish family. In a brief autobiographical note at the end of the book, he acknowledges difficulty in imagining “a God who listens to me or an afterlife that waits for me,” though he tends to envy those who do have “such genuine beliefs.”
Dr. Chesen is not troubled by the ambiguities that abound in psychiatry, nor by some of the booby traps of logic that may beset the essayist. In a chapter titled “Some Ground Rules,” he explains that he has studied religion “as an etiology.” Such an “etiological” approach assumes in advance of any proof that religion is a cause of disease. Likewise undaunted by the post hoc fallacy, the author charges religion with precipitating or laying the groundwork for psychosis when he finds religious background and symptoms in the psychotic patient.
The author makes free use of some sharp instruments that can cut both ways. He asserts that the psychiatrist guided by religious beliefs is unfair to the patient, but he seemingly hasn’t thought about the influence of the psychiatrist who has angry feelings toward religion. He suggests that priests who take a hard line on contraception and abortion may harbor resentment because they are shut off from something in which they would like to have a part; this recalls his own wistful closing note acknowledging the constructive value of religion for giving meaning to life, and his envy of those who have such faith. He belabors the Catholic Church for replacing logic with dogmatism, while his book abounds in such gratuitous assertions as: “there is absolutely no question in my mind” that many ultrafundamentalist preachers are schizophrenic; psychotic breaks are common in fundamentalist Protestantism; the more fundamental or evangelical faiths are the most hazardous to mental health; the Jesus craze is a dissociative experience and a threat to mental well-being; the “mental scar” of abortion is a myth; religious dogma and reality are at opposite poles. A great deal more needs to be written on relationships between psychiatry and religion, but one of the first qualifications is to “read the minutes of the last meeting.”
Two articles of faith underlie most criticism of religion offered by psychiatrists: (1) that healthy religion may be understood by studying religion as it is seen in disturbed and mentally sick patients; (2) that since the alleged realities of religion cannot be grasped by science, there is no such reality. Both presuppositions are defective. The first is fallacious because no unbiased inquiry can neglect the first-hand examination of healthy religion; the second produces an argument from ignorance rather than from knowledge. The logical weakness of these assumptions has long been recognized. (See my articles, “Religion and Psychopathology,” Comprehensive Psychiatry, February, 1964, and “Have Psychiatry and Religion Reached a Truce?,” CHRISTIANITY TODAY, October 8, 1965).
For a balanced view of the subject, I recommend Modern Psychiatry: A Handbook For Believers (Doubleday, 1966, paperback), written by a highly respected psychiatrist, Dr. Frances Braceland, in collaboration with a professor of psychology. Although the subject is treated from the Catholic viewpoint, the book is authoritative and valuable for all Christians.
Western Religion, edited by Hans Mol (Mouton [Box 1132, The Hague, Netherlands], 642 pp., 72 guilders). Authoritative country-by-country surveys in English, each by a sociologist of religion, for all of Europe (except Romania), plus Australia, Canada, New Zealand, South Africa, and the United States (the latter written by perhaps the leading evangelical in the field, David Moberg). Summarizes statistical data; excellent bibliographies. Belongs in every theological library.
The Christian Poet in Paradise Lost, by William C. Riggs (University of California, 194 pp., $7.50). In a lucid, graceful prose style Riggs tries to answer a long-discussed critical question: Do we find Milton expressing his attitudes through Satan or through God? Riggs’s conclusion evinces a mature understanding of Milton’s theology. He says, “Rather, as we have seen, by offering himself as an example of the Christian in conflict, Milton was concerned to turn the meaning of his own encounter with God’s ways toward all mankind, to become himself an heroic pattern.”
Bless This House, by Anita Bryant (Revell, 156 pp., $4.95). A homey, anecdotal look at family living, written by Miss Bryant and her husband. Might be too soupy for some.
Saints Alive!, by Huber Drumwright (Broadman, 128 pp., $1.50). On twenty-six of the lesser-known believers in the New Testament.
How I Changed My Thinking About the Church, by Richard C. Halverson (Zondervan, 120 pp., $3.75). Using the example of the early Church, a well-known pastor stresses the importance of truly personal ministry by the congregation to its own members and to the surrounding community. Fellowship and commitment are effective means of meeting the social and human needs of today’s society.
Independent Bible Study, by Irving Jensen (Moody, 188 pp., $2.95 pb). Paperback edition of a ten-year-old introduction of proven value.
The Theology of Post-Reformation Lutheranism, Volume 2: God and His Creation, by Robert Preus (Concordia, 280 pp., $12.50), and Lutheran Confessional Theology in America: 1840–1880, edited by Theodore Tappert (Oxford, 364 pp., $10.75). Tappert collects seventeen writings by several American counterparts of the two-centuries-earlier Germans who are ably summarized by Preus.
A Dictionary of Liturgy and Worship, edited by J. G. Davies (Macmillan, 385 pp., $9.95). A major reference work, with 361 articles, from “ablutions” to “watch-night.” Liturgy is defined to take in much more than the traditional “liturgical” churches. Many smaller bodies also have articles on them, and such articles are by members of the group. “Baptism,” a long entry, has fifteen subdivisions, each by a different author. International in scope, but with a British flavor. Should be in all school and many congregational libraries.
The Gospel of Matthew, by David Hill (Attic [Box 1156, Greenwood, S. C. 29646], 367 pp., $11.95) and The Gospel of John, by Barnabas Lindars (Attic, 648 pp., $16.95). The “New Century Bible,” a British commentary intended to have more than thirty volumes, is now half complete and has acquired an American distributor. These two volumes are worthy additions to the series, which theological libraries should acquire.
Electric Evangelism, by Dennis Benson (Abingdon, 144 pp., $3.95). Good introduction to the possibilities of radio and TV evangelism. Benson presents creative, innovative ideas to capture the imagination and hearts of young people for Jesus.
From Tradition to Gospel, by Martin Dibelius (Attic [Box 1156, Greenwood, S.C. 29646], 311 pp., $11). Reprint of the 1933 revision of a 1919 work that has been very influential in the academic study of the New Testament.
Thomas Merton on Prayer, by John J. Higgins (Doubleday, 192 pp., $5.95). A helpful study, though reading Merton himself would be more revealing.
Patterns For Prayer From the Gospels, by V. Gilbert Beers (Revell, 95 pp., $2.95). A devotional study of six prayers from the Bible. Some good insights but lacks real meat.
Textile Art in the Church, by Marion P. Ireland (Abingdon, 282 pp., $27.50). A definitive study, with sections on symbolism, color, and the history of Christian art, plus chapters on weaving, design, and needlework. See also the editorial in the February 2 issue, page 25.
Dictionary of American Philosophy, by St. Elmo Nauman, Jr. (Philosophical Library, 273 pp., $10). A biographical dictionary of about 150 philosophers influential in American thought. Entries range from a few lines to a few pages in length. Style is chatty.
Understanding the Bible, by John Stott (Regal, 254 pp., $1.95 pb). Excellent introduction to the purpose, land, story, message, authority, interpretation, and use of the Bible by the renowned English preacher-author.
A Translator’s Handbook on the Acts of the Apostles, by Barclay Newman and Eugene Nida (American Bible Society, 542 pp., $2.50 pb). Those not engaged in translation work will still find many helpful insights.
The Spirituality of Friedrich von Hiigel, by Joseph Whelan (Newman, 320 pp., $8.95), and Baron Friedrich von Hiigel and the Modernist Crisis in England, by Lawrence Borman (Cambridge, 278 pp., $18.50). Two perspectives on a central figure in the turn-of-the-century Catholic conflict that ended rather differently (complete repression) from the way it seems the similar one now raging will end. Well done works of scholarship.
The Threshing Floor, by John Sheehan (Paulist, 208 pp., $3.95 pb). A Catholic educator gives a personal and readable interpretation of the Old Testament that treats the material topically, emphasizing the supposed evolution of the religious forms.
Market Unlimited, by Neville Cryer (Hodder & Stoughton [Warwick Lane, London EC4P 4AH, England], 125 pp., $1.50 pb). A report by a leader of the British and Foreign Bible Society on ways and means of Bible distribution. Some good information on the many and varied media available, and how they can be used to overcome the problems involved in distributing the Bible to the world.
Truth in Advertising (Harper & Row, 44 pp., $2.25 pb). Report of a symposium of the Toronto School of Theology. The pervasive phenomenon of advertising, commercial and non-commercial, has not received nearly enough attention by ethicists. This is only a start.
The Liberalization of American Protestantism by Henry Pratt (Wayne State University, 304 pp., $15.95). A revealing study of the development of the Federal Council of Churches and its successor organization, the National Council of Churches, into a pressure group for political liberalism, despite the opposition of the majority of members of member churches. The author basically approves of this development.
Shakespeare’s God: The Role of Religion in the Tragedies, by Ivor Morris (St. Martin’s, 496 pp., $15.95). While rejecting the “conceptual,” theological approach to Shakespeare’s tragedies, which leads incorrectly to allegorical interpretation, Morris admits that a critic needs to be theologically aware. This critical theory is seen in his discussion of Macbeth, King Lear, Othello, and Hamlet. A solidly argued, well written, interesting case.
The Crusades, by Hans Mayer (Oxford, 339 pp., $10.25 and $2.95 pb), and The Crusaders in the Holy Land, by Meron Benvenisti (Macmillan, 408 pp., $12.95). Respectively, a good general survey and a detailed, illustrated, archaeological and historical presentation of the Crusaders at their destination.
Moral Education: Interdisciplinary Approaches, edited by C. M. Beck, B. S. Crittenden, and E. V. Sullivan (University of Toronto, 402 pp., $12.50, and Newman, $4.95 pb). Conference papers by respected secular educators on the problems of moral education. Some of the issues covered are the search for norms, moral education and action, and moral development. Valuable to those with a serious interest in education.
Hope Is the Remedy, by Bernard Häring (Doubleday, 192 pp., $5.95). The author embarks on a redefinition of hope in terms of a God-given life-style that allows us to face evil and further our “conversion.” At least he bases hope on the ability of Christ’s victory over sin.
Buganda in the Heroic Age, by Michael Wright (Oxford, 244 pp., n.p., pb). With Uganda in the headlines once more, this scholarly account of religious and political strife in a major portion of the country at the close of last century is especially timely. Many Christians were martyred in those years; will it happen again?
Understanding the Old Testament, by Jay Williams (Barron’s, 240 pp., $2.95 pb). A readable introductory guide to the Old Testament that espouses current critical views. Apparently designed for use in a “Bible as literature” class. Displays skepticism about the historicity of reported events.
Revelation and Theology: An Analysis of the Barth-Harnack Correspondence of 1923, by Martin Rumscheidt (Cambridge, 219 pp., $11.95). Documents the chivalrous but vigorous clash between the greatest of German liberals and his famous Swiss student, the founder of neo-orthodoxy. Evangelicals may sympathize with Harnack’s bafflement at Barth’s concept of revelation, which, Harnack felt, destroyed theology as a science for the sake of a faith that Barth could not really define. A valuable if somewhat esoteric contribution to recent theological history.
Luther, edited by Ian Siggins (Harper & Row, 209 pp., $10.50, $5.50 pb). Excerpts from a wide range of writings by Luther and his contemporaries, expertly introduced and arranged (basically in the order that the events occurred). Good bibliography. Unfortunately overpriced.
Inductive Study of the Book of Jeremiah, by F. Ross Kinsler (William Carey Library, 584 pp., $4.95 pb). A missionary-educator has developed a very thorough programmed text for use in extension seminaries. A useful tool for the student who wants to do advanced study of the English Bible.
The Religious Sublime: Christian Poetry and Critical Tradition in Eighteenth-Century England, by David B. Morris (University Press of Kentucky, 260 pp., $8.50). A welcome addition to the various studies of sublimity in the eighteenth century. Basing his survey of the religious sublime on John Dennis’s critical theories, Morris examines Wesley, Watts, and Johnson, among others, and shows how—and postulates why—the eighteenth century’s attitudes toward religious poetry changed.
God Is Up to Something, by David A. Redding (Word, 164 pp., $4.95). A devotional book giving a basis for personal hope; shows God active in lives today as he was in Bible times. For those who despair.
A History of Christian Thought, by Paul Tillich (Simon and Schuster, 550 pp., $4.95 pb). One-volume edition of two series of lectures delivered in the sixties and previously published separately. Indexed.
To Love or Perish: The Technological Crisis and the Churches, edited by Edward Carothers and others (Friendship, 152 pp., $1.95). The report of an NCC/Union Seminary-sponsored task force describes the now familiar crisis and its moral implications. Calls for nations to forsake exploitive life-styles and liberate the oppressed of the world.
The Spirit World, by McCandlish Phillips (Victor [Wheaton, Ill. 60187], 192 pp., $1.45 pb). An abridgment of The Bible, the Supernatural, and the Jews, focusing on the competing expressions of supernaturalism, benign and malign.
1,000 Stories and Quotations of Famous People, by Wayne E. Warner (Baker, 362 pp., $5.95). A sourcebook of forty-four persons’ thoughts (only three are women). Handy, but simplistic. The synopses of various novels are especially poor.
A God Within, by Rene Dubos (Scribner, 325 pp., $8.95). A Pulitzer Prizewinning microbiologist probes man’s inner resources for effecting good or evil, without ever showing why or how to choose one over the other. Tantalizingly unsatisfying.
The Christological Awareness of Clement of Rome and Its Sources, by Harold Bumpus (University Press [21 East St., Winchester, Mass. 01890], 196 pp., n.p.). In this highly technical analysis of one of the earliest post-apostolic writings, Bumpus shows that Clement of Rome was strongly influenced by the Jewish Christians and the literature of the intertestamental period, and hence stressed Christ’s teaching and eschatological role more than his being. Nevertheless Clement was aware of Christ’s preexistence and his mediatorial work.
The Go-Between God, by John V. Taylor (Fortress, 246 pp., $5.50). An examination of the role of the Holy Spirit from the standpoint of personal encounter in all human experience, as specifically portrayed in the Scriptures, and in developments in other religions and the contemporary church. Weak in biblical emphasis.
In Man We Trust: The Neglected Side of Biblical Faith, by Walter Brueggemann (John Knox, 144 pp., $4.95). Having moved from neo-orthodoxy to a more secular theology, the author finds in Old Testament Wisdom literature an affirmation of man and culture. Evangelicals in “culture negating” traditions may benefit from this emphasis, but it is hardly the message needed by secular man. Included is a useful bibliographic essay on recent Wisdom research.
Enthusiasm, by Susie I. Tucker (Cambridge, 224 pp., n.p.). A fascinating discussion of the religious and cultural connotations of the word “enthusiasm” in English literature from the seventeenth century on.
Episcopalians and Roman Catholics: Can They Ever Get Together?, edited by Herbert Ryan and Robert Wright (Dimension [Box 811, Denville, N. J. 07834], 249 pp., $2.95 pb). A liturgy- and ecclesiology-centered discussion of the possibilities of union between two church structures that are in the process of disintegration.
Celibacy in the Church, edited by William Bassett and Peter Huizing (Herder and Herder, 156 pp., $5.95 and $2.95 pb). Nine essays on Roman Catholic clerical celibacy, viewed both historically and theologically, including some by non-Catholics. Also two essays on married (non-Catholic) ministers. (Volume 78 of the “Concilium” series.)
Dogma, Volume 4: The Church, Its Origin and Structure, by Michael Schmaus (Sheed and Ward, 215 pp., $3.95 pb). Translation of the fourth volume of the conservative German Roman Catholic’s major work on systematics, which attempts to uphold traditional Catholic views in dialogue with Protestants and to show their usefulness in daily Christian life and experience. Previous volumes were: God in Revelation, God in Creation, and God and His Christ. Constantine the Great, by Hermann Dörries (Harper & Row, 250 pp., $3.45 pb). An able presentation of the first Christian emperor with full consideration of the theological and religious ramifications.
Conversations on Love and Sex in Marriage, by Jim and June Cicero and Ivan and Joyce Fahs (Wood, 138 pp., $3.50). Very frank conversation between two couples on sex practices and hangups and their relationship to love. May be of interest to some, but it’s only a start toward improving evangelical sexual attitudes.
If the Church Is to Survive, by Louis Evely (Doubleday, 144 pp., $4.95). A French Catholic scholar confronts the conflict of tradition with renewal in his church. He suggests democratic principles of reform in the areas of church structure, authority, the role of the clergy, and missions.
Life in Christ, by Norman Pittenger (Eerdmans, 128 pp., $1.95 pb). A prolific author shares some useful devotional thoughts on a key biblical concept.
Trouble Doesn’t Happen Next Tuesday, by Sallie Chesham (Word, 160 pp., $3.95). Encouraging story of an inner-city ministry, the Old Hat in Chicago, demonstrating the adaptability of the Salvation Army to changing conditions but with an unchanging message of the love of God.
First Easter, by Paul L. Maier (Harper & Row, 128 pp., $4.95). Interesting retelling, with fine photographs, by one who believes the resurrection. Don’t expect anything profound.
People/Profits: The Ethics of Investment, edited by Charles W. Powers (Council on Religion and International Affairs [170 E. 64th St., New York, N. Y. 10021], 214 pp., $2.95 pb). The report of a CRIA seminar that considered questions of investment criteria and investor responsibility. Encourages a “social audit” of corporations and suggests some ethical guidelines.
Private Conscience and Public Law: The American Experience, by Richard J. Regan (Fordham, 245 pp., $8). A study of the claims of individual conscience compared with the public interest (as determined by the Supreme Court). Considers differences on such topics as civil disobedience, medical procedures, education, and population control. A well-documented, informative study with insightful conclusions.
The Sensitivity Phenomenon, by Joseph J. Reidy (Abbey, 134 pp., $4.95, $1.95 pb). An introduction to the sensitivity-encounter-group movement. Gives a brief history and definition of the various types of groups, as well as some of the pros and cons of their effects. Rather negatively disposed.
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