Paul As Villain

The Jesus Party, by Hugh J. Schonfield (Macmillan, 1974, 320 pp., $7.95), and The Jesus Establishment, by Johannes Lehmann (Doubleday, 1974, 212 pp., $5.95), are reviewed by Paul L. Maier, professor of ancient history, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, Michigan.

Both of these titles are rewritings of early Christian history based on the now common (but unproven) thesis that Paul and the gospel writers grossly warped Jesus’ message and falsified facts about his life into the caricature of it believed by later Christians. Neither book uncovers any especially new evidence to support such contentions, despite the sensational claim made on the jacket of The Jesus Party: “This revolutionary view overturns nearly two thousand years of Christian tradition.…” No, it doesn’t.

Dr. Hugh Schonfield, the English scholar-popularist, is well known for The Passover Plot and its follow-up, Those Incredible Christians. For all its melodramatic restyling of Holy Week, The Passover Plot is regarded by most scholars, whether Jewish, Christian, or neither, as an embarrassment to the cause of serious scholarship. Short on evidence but long on imagination and the “thesis-becomes-fact-a-chapter-later” ploy, the work is taken seriously today only by extreme biblical revisionists or by the uninformed.

But in The Jesus Party Schonfield has somewhat mended his academic manners, and his position now is not quite so irresponsible as that of a few of his Jewish co-religionists who are justifiably tired of being branded as “deicides” because of Good Friday and have prepared their literary replies in various ways. For example, Schonfield will have nothing of the too drastic rewriting of history attempted in The Trial and Death of Jesus (Harper & Row, 1971) by Israel’s Justice Haim Cohn, who would have Annas and Caiaphas as Jesus’ “dear friends” rather than antagonists. On the contrary, writes Schonfield, “the behavior of the chief priests in the first century A. D. had become a scandal, as all the sources agree, including Josephus and the Talmud.” He correctly points out that Jesus had a great number of Jewish followers who supported him also after Holy Week, though by some magic he tries to make the claque who shouted for Jesus’ death before Pilate into “largely Gentile servants and henchmen of the chief priests.” Henchmen of the priests, certainly, but where is his evidence for “largely Gentile”?

It is the earliest Jewish-Christian group in particular that Schonfield traces in this book. Their chief was Jacob (James), the younger brother of Jesus, and many of these true partisans of his cause remained orthodox Jews, indeed, revolutionary nationalists, Schonfield claims, until some of the moderates moved from Jerusalem to northeastern Palestine. In variously named groups—Nazoreans, Ebionites, Mandaeans—these Jewish followers far more accurately reflected Jesus’ teachings than did that transformer-of-the-message, Paul of Tarsus. The gospel writers followed Paul’s style in relating to the Gentile world, Schonfield asserts, and in order to make their message palatable to a victorious, Gentile Rome, “the Jews” became the ethnic “fall guys” for the death of Jesus and are falsely portrayed as hostile to the early Church.

The last argument, of course, has become something of a standard in all these books, but it can easily be disproven (See my “Who Was Responsible For the Trial and Death of Jesus?,” CHRISTIANITY TODAY, April 12, 1974.) There is, however, no question that large numbers of Jews did indeed support Jesus, also after Holy Week, and so anti-Semitism was a particularly stupid and tragic sin in church history.

Some of Schonfield’s touches are accurate enough. He correctly points out that Jesus was indicted before Pilate at the Palace of Herod in west Jerusalem, not at the Tower Antonia shown to all tourists today. This is demonstrably true. He also seems to accept large sections of the book of Acts as essentially factual.

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He errs, however, in whipping several tired hobby horses too furiously in this book. He identifies the Ophel, a mound southeast of today’s Jerusalem, as the place of the Last Supper and headquarters for early Christianity—without any scrap of supporting evidence that I can find in his text, but for the probable purpose of forging a link with the revolutionary Zealot party, quartered on the same hill. His chronology of the life of Jesus founders on an impossibly late dating for the Crucifixion, A.D. 36, which to my knowledge is shared by almost no one else on earth. He claims that John the Baptist was beheaded in A.D. 35, and that Jesus’ crucifixion could not occur until a year later. But this is a mistaken interpretation of the text of Josephus (Antiq., xviii, 5, 2), which introduces the execution of John purely as a flashback in later material.

Schonfield’s use of the sabbatical year to explain periodic Jewish restlessness and rioting, while something of a fresh argument, is simply overdone. From these pages, one would conclude that the Jews rioted only every seventh year, when they had copious free time on their hands. In fact, they always rebelled against specific provocations, whenever they occurred, regardless of any presumed sabbatical cycle.

The reader must also be careful of assumptions given out as general fact—an old Schonfield habit. For example, Luke did not write his gospel until A.D. 90–110, since he clearly read Josephus first, Schonfield argues. This crucial point is by no means proven, and we need not assume, just because Josephus is our only other surviving source on material included also in Luke, that Luke’s information could have come only via Josephus. In fact, there were dozens of other sources at the time, now lost to us (cf. Luke 1:1). Caveat lector!

Finally, Schonfield supplies quite a collection of fanciful, imaginative reconstructions-to-explain-away-the-miracle, a la The Passover Plot. The Pentecost experience was merely a case of the disciples’ getting headaches from a sirocco, a south wind that does weird things to people, while The Paraclete was only their Upper Room host, John. His and Peter’s healing of the victim at the Temple gate was the parading of a “fake cripple.” Peter’s release from prison (Acts 12) was merely the “Jewish underground” doing an effective job, while Paul suffered “a kind of epileptic fit” on the road to Damascus. And so it goes. In most cases the reconstructions are harder to believe than the miracles.

Johannes Lehmann is a news feature editor at one of Munich’s largest radio stations. He has studied much theology and wields a facile pen. Unfortunately, his homework was done with preconceived biases even stronger than Schonfield’s. A look at his bibliography (Allegro, Brandon, Davies, Schonfield, etc.) is sufficient to set the stage for what in the German original is better entitled, Jesus, Incorporated. A fitting subtitle would have been: “How the Church Wrecked Christ’s Message.” The bêtes noires are, again, Paul, and particularly Constantine, the first Christian emperor, who comes through with all the ugly hues first painted by Jacob Burckhardt in the nineteenth century.

Some of Lehmann’s criticisms all Christians can and do agree with, but such strictures were new only in the sixteenth century, when Martin Luther first voiced them. Lehman closes his book epigrammatically: “The man from Nazareth proclaimed the coming of the Kingdom of God; instead, there came the Church. For the sake of the man from Nazareth, we should bid the Church goodbye. It actually had no use for him.”

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But in keelhauling the Christian Church, why is Lehmann so sepulchrally silent about the many areas where the Church, with all its faults, did affirm Jesus’ message in order to deliver hope to people in the adversity of the Dark Ages, where it also singlehandedly kept Western culture alive by millions of monkish man-hours spent in recopying manuscripts to save the classics from extinction? He dares argue, “I cannot recall a single case where the Church called for a boycott … to halt or denounce a war,” quite ignoring the fact that it was the Church that limited medieval warfare by studding the week with truce days, or acting as the Red Cross before the Red Cross where war broke out anyway, and later opening medical mission stations across the world. And where was higher education first fostered and the university born but in the Church? What, in fact, was and is the spiritual alma mater of Western civilization?

Must so many of today’s publications be sensationalizing screeds, aiming for sales, not scholarship? Whatever happened to balance in literature?

Three Looks At The Apocalypse

The Most Revealing Book of the Bible, by Vernard Eller (Eerdmans, 1974, 214 pp., $3.95 pb), A Personal Adventure in Prophecy, by Raymond Kincheloe (Tyndale, 1974, 214 pp., $4.95, $2.95 pb), and There’s a New World Coming, by Hal Lindsey (Vision and Harvest House, 1973, 308 pp., $4.95, $2.95 pb), are reviewed by Robert Mounce, dean of the College of Arts and Huma ities, Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green.

Writing a joint review of three commentaries on Revelation is only slightly less difficult than converting a committed chiliast to the amillennial position! Eller, Kincheloe, and Lindsey are all premillennialists, but they by no means approach the Apocalypse in the same manner. Lindsey believes that prophecy, by its very nature, is relatively incomprehensible until the historical period arrives in which it is being fulfilled. For this reason men like Luther, Zwingli, and Calvin “knew little about prophecy,” although the contemporary interpreter finds that the meaning of the book “becomes clear with the unfolding of current world events”. Lindsey discovers such modern-day phenomena as the European Common Market, Red China, helicopters, the cobalt bomb, and Telstar all tucked away in this ancient book apparently addressed to seven first-century congregations in Asia. In fact, the very symbolism of the book results from the necessary skewing of first-century Greek so as to convey twentieth-century socio-political and technological developments. “After all, how could God transmit the thought of a nuclear catastrophe to someone living in the year A.D. 90!”

Eller, on the other hand, insists at the outset that “calendarizing” (fitting the events of John’s visions into the calendar of contemporary world affairs) undermines the very eschatological stance that Jesus and the New Testament intend to teach. He views the many popular attempts to locate the fulfillment of John’s prophecies in a particular point in history as trying to “pull an end run on God and find out what he expressly indicated is not to be found out.” Throughout the commentary Eller takes potshots at calendarizers. After explaining that Armageddon has no relationship to a place called Megiddo (it resulted from a copyist who mistakenly altered the Hebrew “mount of assembly”), he notes that the matter is not a crucial one “except for calendarizers who may want to sell seats and thus need to know just where the scene is to transpire.” In the one place where a temporal historical reference cannot be denied (17:9–17), Eller is forced to the rather bankrupt expediency of creating an interpolator of “calendarizing mentality” who thought he could improve on John’s work by adding a paragraph to show his readers that the beast was none other than the then current emperor Domitian.

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It would be difficult to find two commentators further apart in basic approach than Eller and Lindsey. Yet they have one characteristic in common: both have a weakness for “cute” writing. Lindsey likes to call the rapture “the Great Snatch” and labels an excursus on the harlot in chapter 17, “A Short History of ‘Hookers.’ ” Believers who were fed to the lions in the cruel games of the Coliseum are “one-time guest stars,” and whoever thinks that hell is fun and games needs to reflect on whether he’s ever seen anyone playing poker in a blast furnace. First prize for inappropriate prose, however, goes to Eller. When the lamb appears in chapter five he writes:

So the main bout on the card of history (for the heavyweight championship of the entire created universe) is to be ‘Arnion vs. Therion’! Oh, no, no, no! God wouldn’t send that wee, little slaughtered lambkin up against a monster like that! It isn’t fair! He doesn’t have a chance [p. 79].

Or again, commenting on the slaughter in 14:14–20 he tells us:

Some clever head has figured out the amount of blood that could be squeezed from an average human being and divided that into the volume of a puddle two hundred miles in radius and as deep as a horse’s bridle. His conclusion is that, even if everyone went through the press of wrath, the cumulative population of the world still has not been nearly enough to provide the juice. It’s a bloody shame! [p. 144].

It’s a “bloody shame” that a scholar and writer of Eller’s ability can’t resist the temptation to play to the crowd. I believe that the seriousness of the issues under consideration in this last chapter of God’s written revelation to man demands a far less cavalier treatment.

With the book by Kincheloe we enter into a different atmosphere. His work is a modest although effective attempt to provide both a methodology for individual study of the Apocalypse and his own organized insights into its meaning. Each chapter is introduced by instructions designed to involve the reader in a personal and active relation with the text. The commentary is sprinkled with study projects, exegetical notes, and helpful summaries. Perhaps the only place that may surprise the dispensationally oriented reader is the interpretation of the contemporary period as the Philadelphian age with the Laodicean period arriving during the tribulation. He writes, “Current belief that we are in the Laodicean period is one of the greatest hindrances to revival today.”

One final word about Eller’s “universalism.” While stopping short of claiming that all men will finally be saved, he clearly holds to the possibility of repentance and redemption following their entrance into the lake of fire. This is what he understands as the “second resurrection.” A verse such as 14:11, which says that “the smoke of their torment will rise for ever and ever,” is explained as one of those places where John has overdone it and misrepresented the character of God.

The Anabaptist Contribution

The Theology of Anabaptism: An Interpretation, by Robert Friedmann (Herald, 183 pp., $7.95), is reviewed by William W. Wells, assistant professor of philosophy and religion, University of Hawaii, Hilo.

The Anabaptists have been variously labeled “the left wing Reformation,” a label that implies a basic continuity with the rest of the Reformation movement; “the radical Reformation,” a label that implies a lack of continuity; and “Schwärmer,” religious enthusiasts, a derisive label that implies that they were actually a deviant form of Christianity. Since the time of Luther, the third phrase has tended to receive the most attention, and, as a result, the history and thought of the Anabaptists have generally received little notice in studies of the Reformation.

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But during the twentieth century, scholars have come to a greater appreciation of their contribution to the development of the church, and there has been a corresponding recognition that the attacks on the Anabaptists by the major reformers grew out of their ignorance of Anabaptist theological thought. Also of late, primary sources of the movement in English have become more readily available. (See, for example, The Legacy of Michael Sattler by John H. Yoder, the first in a series entitled “Classics of the Radical Reformation” being published by Herald Press.) As a result there is no longer any reason to remain ignorant of the movement or to continue to treat the Anabaptists as the black sheep of the Reformation.

In 1950 the Mennonite Quarterly Review devoted an issue to the theology of the Anabaptists; the lead article suggested that it would be premature to write a theology of the Anabaptists precisely because many of the primary sources upon which such a theology should be based were just then beginning to appear in English. The author of that article suggested that there had not yet been time to digest those materials. Following this lead article the reader finds three men trying to suggest the general lines along which a theology of the Anabaptists should be developed. The article by Franklin Littell argues that the distinctive contribution of the Anabaptists was their view of the church. (Two years later he published his book The Origins of Sectarian Protestantism, which elaborated and defended this thesis.) Harold Bender, in his article “The Anabaptist Theology of Discipleship,” argues that the idea of the church follows from the more basic Anabaptist concept of discipleship, the personal decision of the believer to follow Christ. The third interpretation presented in that issue of the Review was by Robert Friedmann. His posthumously published The Theology of Anabaptism is an elaboration of that original journal article.

It is generally recognized that the Anabaptists did not write any theological systems, and many have sought to explain that fact. Commonly, writers attribute this lack of interest in “system building” to the intense persecution directed at the Anabaptists or to the fact that theirs was basically a lay movement. Friedmann in his Theology of Anabaptism argues against both of these explanations, suggesting that the explanation must be found in their experience of the Christian faith. Luther suffered through many years of anxiety before discovering that God was willing to forgive his sins. He was asking the theological question: “How may I be forgiven?” The Anabaptists begin their theological reflection after the experience of being forgiven and ask: “How do I live my life now that I have been reconciled with God?” This Anabaptist perspective Friedmann calls “Existential Christianity.” Because of this perspective, the theology of Anabaptism remains an implicit theology, a theology not systematized.

If one examines this implicit theology, says Friedmann, one finds that the core concept is neither the sacramental idea of the Roman Catholic Church of the Reformation period nor Luther’s idea of justification. Rather one finds a “Kingdom Theology,” a theology of two worlds. At the heart of this theology is “the acceptance of a fundamental New Testament dualism, that is, an uncompromising dualism in which Christian values are held in sharp contrast to the values of the ‘World’ in its corrupt state.” The disciple is one who sees this dualism and chooses to follow Christ.

Having described what he sees as the core of the “Existential Theology” of Anabaptism, Friedmann devotes the third section of his book to traditional theological questions. It is, as John Oyer notes in his “Introduction,” the weakest section of the book. It seems significant, too, that 40 per cent of this section is devoted to questions of ecclesiology. This fact suggests that Littell might be right in saying that the core idea of the Anabaptists was their concept of the church.

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Having read Friedmann’s book, I find myself unconvinced that it is even possible to write a good book with the title The Theology of Anabaptism, since all writers, including Friedmann, agree that the evangelical Anabaptists were—with only a few individual exceptions—completely othodox in their theology. Hershberger’s The Recovery of the Anabaptist Vision, a book of essays on distinctive Anabaptist ideas, would seem to be a much more appropriate form for approaching the theological contribution of Anabaptism.

In addition to this general criticism, I note that Friedmann seems to assume that personal, “existential” commitment must somehow exclude rigorous theological thought. Since I find this premise unacceptable, I find his defense of “Existential Christianity” also unconvincing. And I think that the basis of his crucial first and second sections is likely to be unacceptable to most readers.

The Anabaptists of the Reformation articulated many ideas that we now take for granted (e.g., religious tolerance) long before these ideas were generally accepted. Other typically Anabaptist ideas have not yet found general acceptance, though they might if properly presented. If some of these lesser known ideas are to receive general acceptance, they must be clearly set forth and defended. Friedmann’s book is an effort in this direction, but the other books mentioned will be of more value to most readers and remain at present the standards in the area.


Simple Living, by Edward Ziegler (Brethren Press or Pyramid, 127 pp., $1.25 pb), Christian Asceticism, by J. A. Ziesler (Eerdmans, 118 pp., $2.25 pb), A Serious Call to a Contemplative Life-Style, by Glenn Hinson (Westminster, 125 pp., $2.85 pb), and Finding a Simpler Life, by John Cooper (Pilgrim, 127 pp., $5.25). Timely books for life in a recession! While the roads and reasoning differ, the goal is the same: to call people to a life-style devoid of mechanization and waste. Ziegler’s pattern is in the “plain people” tradition of the “Dunker” Brethren movement. Ziesler charts his course to renunciation with the motivation of God’s love, rather than self-deprivation. Hinson anchors his in a disciplined prayer life, a devotional life, that should lead to a mode of simplicity. Cooper offers an analysis of the trend in terms of disillusionment, his being the least “religious” examination of the life-style swing.

Theology, Physics, and Miracles, by Werner Schaaffs (Canon, 100 pp., $2.95 pb). A German physics professor gives an informative defense of biblical miracles.

Life Essential: The Hope of the Gospel, by George MacDonald (Harold Shaw, 102 pp., $1.95 pb). A stylistically edited collection of theological essays by the nineteenth-century Scot who was greatly admired by C. S. Lewis. Excellent as devotional reading.

The Works of John Fletcher, (four volumes, HSBC Press [Box 1065, Hobe Sound, Fla. 33455], 2,472 pp., $59.95/set). Fletcher (1729–85) was born and raised in French Switzerland but ministered in England. He is widely recognized as the foremost apologist for the burgeoning Methodist movement. This reprinted collection of his works will be especially welcomed by faithful Wesleyans of our time, but non-Wesleyan libraries need to acquire these influential writings as well.

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The Roots of American Order, by Russell Kirk (Open Court, 534 pp., $15). In anticipation of the Bicentennial a conservative overview of the various influences and convictions that caused America’s revolution to produce more stability and liberty than other prominent revolutions. Biblical, Greco-Roman, Medieval, Protestant, and Deist influences are among those considered.

Yesterday, Today, and Forever, edited by T. A. Raedeke (Canon, 111 pp., $2.95 pb). Nine essays by some of the Key 73 leaders describing this evangelistic outreach.

O Christian! O Jew!, by Paul Carlson (Cook, 262 pp., $1.95 pb). A popular history of Judaism for the Christian. Good background material on the situation of modern Israel.

Audiovisual Idea Book For Churches, by Mary and Andrew Jensen (Augsburg, 160 pp., $3.95 pb), and You and Communication in the Church: Skills and Techniques, edited by B. F. Jackson (Word, 270 pp., $5.95). Introductions, The first focuses on such “how to’s” as organizing an audiovisual library and field trips (sight and sound experiences!). The second stresses communication—written, visual, and spoken. Chapters on the mechanics of producing and using tapes and slides are excellent.

Behold the Man, by George Cornell (Word, 206 pp., $5.95), and People Around Jesus, by Walter Kortrey (Pilgrim, 128 pp., $5.50). Slight literary liberties have been taken with the events and people surrounding Jesus’ life to embellish the account for more imaginative reading. In the first this brings the events and the people into fuller focus. In the second it provides insights into the lives and motives of Jesus’ followers. Both are stimulating pleasure reading with a biblical basis.

Theological Dictionary of the Old Testament, Volume One, edited by Johannes Botterweck and Helmer Ringgren (Herdmans, 479 pp., $18.50). This volume marks the launching of a major project as the counterpart to the nine volumes of Kittel. Articles on fifty-three key words or word-groups from abh (father) to badhadh (isolation). For all libraries and advanced students.

Christian: Celebrate Your Sexuality, by Dwight Small (Revell, 221 pp., $5.95). A theological approach to the full sexual identity and expression of man that offers a balanced, refreshing understanding of the biblical teaching. Highly recommended.

The Jews of the United States, edited by Priscilla Fishman (Quadrangle, 302 pp., $8.95). Historical and cultural survey of the Jewish people in America, stressing their contribution. Focus is more ethnic than religious.

On the Side of Truth, by George N. Shuster (University of Notre Dame, 351 pp., $9.95). Selections from the numerous writings of a prominent Catholic layman and educator and long-time foe of totalitarianism.

Divorce and Remarriage, by Dennis Doherty (Abbey, 194 pp., $8.50, $4.95 pb), Divorced and Christian, by Alice Stolper Peppier (Concordia, 93 pp., $2.95 pb), and The Risk of Fidelity, by Pierre de Locht (Dimension, 77 pp., $2.45 pb). Widely different and thought-provoking approaches to divorce. Doherty, a Catholic ethicist, presents a case for the acceptance of the practice from a moral and ecumenical perspective. Peppier deals with the emotions involved from a more biblical persuasion. De Locht adheres to the traditional Catholic view in questioning the moral right of any person to renege on a commitment, whether to marriage or to the priesthood.

This Morning With God, edited by Carol Adeney (four volumes, InterVarsity, 120–162 pp. each; vols. 1–3, $1.95 pb each; vol. 4, $2.50 pb). Recently completed, this daily devotional guide cannot replace Bible reading because it consists of questions on the passage for the day. Books from various parts of the Bible are included in each volume. (There is a Gospel in each volume, for example.) The whole Bible is covered in four to five years.

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Christian Association for Psychological Studies Proceedings (CAPS [6850 Division Ave. S., Grand Rapids, Mich. 49508], 272 pp., $4 pb). The papers presented at the twenty-third CAPS convention. Good examples of the thinking on a variety of important topics (purposes in life, women’s role, clergy stresses) by evangelical psychologists and psychiatrists.

Startling Trends in Our Generation, by T. Wilson Litzenberger (Gibbs Publishing Co. [Broadview, Ill. 60153], 255 pp., $5.95). For those who want examples of how bad things are (in fifteen categories such as crime and famine) and how it all points to Christ’s return.

The Rhythm of God: A Philosophy of Worship, by Geddes MacGregor (Seabury, 120 pp., $5.95), and The Biblical Doctrine of Worship, edited by Edward Robson et al. (Reformed Presbyterian Church [800 Wood Street, Pittsburgh, Pa. 15221], 395 pp., $8.95 pb). Two quite different views of worship are presented. The first, in a gentle and easy-to-read fashion, relates the changing of high-church liturgy to the shifting needs of the people, but also stresses the natural evolutionary process of worship that comes from being in tune with God’s leading. The second provides a symposium to clarify the classical Reformed position on worship, as well as to offer a scholarly defense for singing only Psalms and those a cappella.

A History of Judaism, by David Silver and Bernard Martin (two volumes, Basic Books, 476 and 527 pp., $30/set). A major, worthwhile addition to the already copious literature. The scope is from Abraham to the present. Bibliography and index enhance the value.

Jacques Maritain: Homage in Words and Pictures, by John Griffin and Yves Simon (64 pp., $12.95), and Raissa’s Journal, by Raissa Maritain (404 pp., $12.95, both by Magi [33 Buckingham Drive, Albany, N.Y. 12208]). A tribute to and pictorial memoir of the late French Catholic philosopher, and his wife’s spiritual journals, which are arresting in their own right.

Religious America, by Philip Garvin and Julia Welch (McGraw Hill, 185 pp., $12.95). The creator of the televised film series of the same name presents photographs and descriptions of numerous examples of worshiping communities such as a Catholic monastery, a black Baptist church, and Hasidic Judaism in Brooklyn.

The Devil, You Say!, by Andrew Greeley (Doubleday, 192 pp., $5.95). A prolific author reflects in readable style upon a variety of vices (e.g., envy, privatism, ethnocentrism) and corresponding virtues. He says, wisely, ‘The evil one is greatly pleased when people think his principal threat is possession and black magic.”

Ethnologue, edited by Barbara Grimes (Wycliff Bible Translators [Huntington Beach, Calif. 92648], 388 pp., $6 pb). A systematic listing, as complete as possible, of the languages and dialects spoken in each country and the status of Bible translations for each. Helpful for linguists and the missions-minded.

Teach Me, Please, Teach Me, by Dorothy Clark et al. (David C. Cook, 142 pp., $2.95 pb). Twelve lessons and follow-up for presenting the Gospel to the retarded.

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