President George W. Bush's ardent support for Israel surprises no one. After all, America has been one of Israel's main allies since it gained statehood. But the president's evangelical Christianity makes some foreign policy observers wonder whether his pro-Israel bent has deeper-and to many eyes, more dangerous-roots. This week the Washington Post probed a possible link to Christian Zionism, which Moshe Fox, minister for public affairs at the Israeli Embassy in Washington, identified as "one of the common explanations [of] … why and how Bush is sympathetic to Israel and its cause."
Christian Zionism began with William E. Blackstone, a real estate developer and unconventional minister who settled in the Chicago suburbs in 1870. Intense emphasis on Palestine's role in the upcoming end of the world began even earlier, notably with the work of Plymouth Brethren leader John Nelson Darby. Yet Darby's views, known as dispensational premillennialism (think Left Behind, or look at the definition here: http://www.blueletterbible.org/faq/mill.html#dmil), had more detractors than supporters in the late nineteenth century. This didn't bother Blackstone.
Blackstone, who could almost hear the clock ticking down humanity's final days, called Palestine "God's sun-dial." He frequently advised, "If anyone desires to know our place in God's chronology, our position in the march of events, look at Israel." By the mid-1880s, Blackstone had shifted from mere timekeeping to attempts at speeding up the cosmic chronology. In 1887, he helped form the Chicago Committee for Hebrew Christian Work to evangelize Jews and thus ready them for Christ's harvest. On a parallel track, he agitated for the establishment of a Jewish homeland, both to shield Jews from oppression (particularly in Russia) and to fulfill biblical prophecy.
Blackstone's adventures in statecraft yielded a remarkable document known as the Blackstone Petition, or Memorial, of 1891. Addressed to President Benjamin Harrison, but also sent to Czar Alexander III, Queen Victoria, and other European leaders, the petition noted that, "[a]ccording to God's distribution of nations," Palestine belonged to the Jews. The document also asserted, "We believe this is an appropriate time for all nations and especially the Christian nations of Europe to show kindness to Israel. A million of exiles, by their terrible suffering, are piteously appealing to our sympathy, justice, and humanity. Let us now restore to them the land of which they were so cruelly despoiled by our Roman ancestors."
The 413 signatories included prominent journalists, businessmen, and clergy members from Chicago, New York, Boston, Philadelphia, Washington, and Baltimore-among them Cyrus McCormick, J.P. Morgan, John D. and William Rockefeller, D.L. Moody, A.T. Pierson, Philip Schaff, James Cardinal Gibbons, and future president William McKinley. The names of a few rabbis and other Jewish leaders appeared as well, but only a few.
At this point, Zionism was primarily a Christian concern. Theodor Herzl wouldn't publish The Jewish State (a response to the 1894 Dreyfus case in France) until 1896, and even then, many Jews even opposed the idea. Rabbi Emil G. Hirsch said, "We modern Jews do not wish to be restored to Palestine … the country wherein we live is our Palestine."
If Blackstone's petition had set the Western agenda toward the Middle East, its connection with current foreign policy would be easier to establish. Instead, the policy-setting distinction goes to the 1917 Balfour Declaration, a product more of British imperial concerns than of biblical interpretation. Of course, Christian Zionism didn't end with Balfour or the founding of modern Israel; if anything, the movement's proponents became more outspoken as world events appeared to bolster their vision of the future.
But Christian Zionism didn't just produce the "anything for Israel" activism noted, and derided, by the Post. Its momentum could take unexpected turns, as the story of Horatio Spafford's American Colony illustrates.
Spafford, the Chicago lawyer-and friend of William Blackstone-who famously lost four daughters at sea, didn't just write about the day when "the trump shall resound, and the Lord shall descend." He wanted to be in the Holy Land when it happened. So, in 1881, he and what remained of his family moved to Jerusalem and established the American Colony. "Jerusalem is where my Lord lived, suffered and conquered," Spafford said, "and I wish to learn how to live, suffer and especially to conquer."
Members of the colony, known as "Spaffordites" or "Overcomers," firmly believed in dispensational premillennialism. For awhile, they journeyed daily to the Mount of Olives in hopes of being the first to greet the returning Savior. They even packed snacks for him. But the colony poured far more effort into religious education and humanitarian aid.
The colony extended an especially warm embrace to a large group of impoverished Jews who came to Jerusalem from Yemen in 1882, but members also provided education and healthcare for local Arabs. Medical work gained importance during World War I, when the colony was used as a Red Cross facility. Eventually humanitarian concerns edged out millennial fervor completely, and by 1930 the colony dropped its explicitly religious character. Significantly, by this time the colony had also reversed its position on Zionism, viewing it as a threat to the indigenous, mostly Arab population.
As Moshe Fox told the Post, it would be interesting to know what President Bush thinks of all this history. His answer, though, might not yield the sort of information journalists and pundits could plug into a policy-defining formula. If he did confirm a connection to Christian Zionism, would that put him in the camp of millennial evangelist William Blackstone, diplomat Arthur James Balfour, or the humanitarian Spaffordites? It certainly wouldn't paint him into the most conservative corner of conservative Christianity, no matter what the Post tries to insinuate.
Timothy Weber explored this topic at greater length in the October 5, 1998, issue of Christianity Today. His article, "How Evangelicals Became Israel's Best Friend," appears here: http://www.christianitytoday.com/ct/8tb/8tb038.html
Other relevant Web pages include:
"God's Little Errand Boy" (a biography of William E. Blackstone) http://www.amfi.org/errandboy.htm
Bertha Spafford Vester, The American Colony, and The Red Cross http://www.uscolo.edu/history/seminar/vester/paper.htm
Chicago: Incubator of American Zionism http://www.us-israel.org/jsource/US-Israel/chicago.html
Evangelicals and Israel: Theological Roots of a Political Alliance http://www.religion-online.org/cgi-bin/relsearchd.dll/showarticle?item_id=216
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