Does the M.Div. Have a Future?
What do changes in seminary education mean for the classic pastoral degree?

PARSE has been talking about the changing nature of theological education for a long time. Today, Jim Miller zooms in on the state of the benchmark M.Div. degree.


Long the gold standard of seminary education, the Masters of Divinity degree is a requirement for ordination in many denominations. It requires students to make a serious commitment—usually three years, long study hours, and thousands of tuition dollars. They immerse themselves in biblical Hebrew and Koine Greek—some eagerly, some begrudgingly. The result has been a trusted and standardized course of theological study.

But things are changing.

Four significant influences have shifted students, and consequently schools, away from the M.Div. and into alternative learning tracks. The rise of non-denominational churches that no longer require seminary education, significant financial debt incurred by students who are headed into a profession that will not necessarily empower them to pay it off, the rising possibility and acceptability of online education, and the decline of mainline Protestant denominations have all raised questions about the viability of the M.Div.

"We're in a huge paradigm shift in terms of theological education, both in the way it's delivered and the content," said Fuller Seminary's Kurt Fredrickson. He's a reverend, and Associate Dean for Doctor of Ministry and Continuing Education and Assistant Professor of Pastoral Ministry.

"It's causing conniptions all over the place.

Back in the day, I got a three year degree and then went out into the church. Today the number of people willing to move to a campus is getting smaller and smaller." Fuller recently launched the MAGL degree, a 72 unit Masters of the Arts in Global Leadership. This month they launch two new Masters degrees: the Masters of the Arts in Theology and Ministry (MATS) and the Masters of the Arts in Intercultural Studies (MAICS). "We're reconfiguring our M.Div. It's going to be completely different a year from now," he said.

This will include dropping the required number of units from 144 to 120.

Rev. Dr. Scott Daniels, Dean of the School of Theology and Professor of Theology at Azusa Pacific University, agrees that seminary education is changing. "The M.Div. is no longer the 'ticket' into ordination for most pastors," Daniels observes. "The future of the M.Div. and other theology degrees seems to hinge solely upon the perceived 'value added' for people in ministry."

October 01, 2013

Displaying 1–10 of 24 comments

Scott .

March 26, 2015  7:50pm

The problem with the M.Div has multiple facets, some of which that have been commented on already. But in credit hours and time, I can have a Ph.D. in nearly any other discipline. For the M.Div to survive, it needs to be redeveloped for a 21st century society and church. What I mean it should be a terminal degree, much like the MFA. Secondly, the hours need to drop down to 32-40 hours. Lastly, it needs to be update to meet the demands of someone entering the ministry today. Things have drastically changed in our society. The outreach concepts, plus presenting the Gospel is very different from that just 10 years ago. I chose not to even go this direction due to a lack of ROI. The M.DIV would have put me into great debt in a profession that would not cover the investment. As a Christian Business Entrepreneur, I am reaching people every day and making community impact that is more than I think could have happened if I were in the pulpit.

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Richard Crowson

June 09, 2014  10:52pm

The M.Div. degree from Luther Rice complimented the MARE, MABS and MAMis degrees obtained ten years earlier from Birmingham Theological Seminary. The pastoral experience I had before completing my M.Div. degree gave me a sense of perspective that I would not have as less experienced student. I am grateful to God that my career as a bi-vocational pastor allowed me the opportunity to be a lifelong learner. I was able to focus my electives on Biblical Counseling and to season earlier theological training. In the M.Div. coursework, I experienced "hands on" experiences by attending a Jewish Synagogue and interviewing the Rabbi for a course in Missions. Likewise, I took a 70 hour counseling internship allowing me to meld experience with theory. Having completed 27 hours of a 60 hour doctorate of education at Dallas Baptist University was definitely enriched by first completing the M.Div. degree.

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Ashley Davis

April 28, 2014  12:56pm

I am about to graduate in May with my MDiv from Virginia Union University and I am very satisfied with the growth I have achieved in my 3-year journey, even though I believe there are many things I did not get a chance to take advantage of--as far as educational opportunities. The truth of the matter is an individual has to determine what is pertinent in their context. Seminarians would go broke trying to learn everything the University has to offer, and then you also realize other things that would be nice to know the more you dig into your studies. The question is "what will prepare you for ministry in your context?" However, there are many that come to seminary not knowing what their context is because they have no specific call to ministry, but they merely have the desire to know more about God and the things of God. As they study (and pray) their spiritual formation begins and one that had no direction slowly begins to have vision (however small). More perspective...

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Joseph Dear

March 27, 2014  12:33pm

I think one big issue in all this costs have gotten so high that they don't just reduce one's standard of living, but now flat out prevent access to people. Just like you can't flip burgers and mow lawns to pay for your undergrad degree anymore, so too has the cost of seminary education gotten to the point where a typical person has no really good options. Either they go really deep into debt (tuition alone runs about $50,000 at many seminaries), or they work full-time, incurring less debt but taking 7 years to get a 3-year masters degree. And even then, their options are limited to those that cater to working people with night classes or heavily online programs (which are only now starting to really pick up). And it's not like seminaries are rolling in cash and can just cut their prices in half. Seminary professors gotta eat and pay their enormous student loans too. Though the above sounds negative, it also means that changes and increased flexibility are good things :)

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John C

December 15, 2013  4:01pm

I know there is a move away from the MDiv in some circles. And I am not saying it is an ironclad requirement for ministry either. But I recently sat on an ordination council for a young man with an MA from a well known and established fully accredited theological school and I was literally stunned by his ignorance of church history, theological vocabulary and bible content not to mention complete ignorance of the languages. That the MDiv is now the gold standard and not the minimum qualification for pastoral ministry is a profound indictment of the American church.

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Thomas Hypes

October 15, 2013  7:22am

I am thankful that I received my education through an alternative track. I am not down on M. Div.s but when I looked at seminary versus a track through a denomination I used to be part of, the track I took was much more practical to ministry than the option. I am all for education but pray we are getting to a day where the M. Div. is not worshiped the way it has been. We follow a tradition where the early church leaders where the flunkies compared to the spiritually educated in the synagogue and to require that paper to minister is wrong to me. I get that many people will apply for a position and the M.Div. is a quick way to narrow down the choices but that is so much like the world that it bothers me. When looking for the person God is raising into the role, most churches are looking for David's brothers instead of David himself. It has gotten so bad that one large church in my area is challenged in a unique way. The pastor (who never went to seminary) told one of his associates "We are at the point in size where I never will hire someone without a M.Div. again." I am getting a little middle aged in my ministry and I'm blessed to have great mentors and to mentor others that God entrusts to me. I am amazed that those I am working with that have M.Div.s do not know as far as practical, everyday ministry. Just random thoughts....

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October 10, 2013  9:34am

Interesting discussion. In reading the comments, and from my own experience, I do see 3 problems with the MDiv. 1) Financial- is it worth the extra $? 2) The languages- this is a concern in many ways. With the resources available, how needed are they? 3) Time- the recent past has seen an emphasis on certain subjects, but a lack of emphasis on pastoral training. People only have so much time to focus on, and if in-depth teaching is not their passion, why spend that extra time (and $) on certain subjects? However, we don't want to end up with an anti-intellectual clergy either. Where is the balance?

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October 08, 2013  5:25pm

I am involved in a church plant with ACNA and they have been flexible. I do some of my seminary work part time as I already have a career (I have for over 20 years!). There are people who are willing to lead when they are over 40 and have a family. With what is happening in our world maybe there needs to be a shift in attitudes.

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Sebastian Cortez

October 08, 2013  2:32pm

I am currently on an M.Div track at a really great Reformed Seminary. I love the teachers and students that are there. I love the education...I have learned a ton from them! But the discouraging part of the school is the languages, and the fact that when I talk to almost every pastor who has been out of seminary for five years, they tell me that they rarely use it. How am I supposed to be encouraged to study the languages when people who have taken them do not find much value for them? I am currently in my third year of a very successful church plant, and getting ready to plant a second one. I have been married for thirteen years, and I have four kids. How am I supposed to take on an M.Div program that really emphasizes the languages, and face the challenges of a growing church at the same time that I am trying to be a good husband and father? I recently had to scale back massively from the courses I was taking so I could have a sense of sanity. The thought that crossed my mind was "well, maybe the time has passed for you. Should have thought about this sooner". But I refuse to think that I cannot do this. I want to get educated, but I need something that grounds me in doctrine, and gives me the ability to sharpen my skills as a leader. This is why I am taking one M.Div course at a time, but I am enrolled full time at Fuller Seminary in their MAGL program. Great article, great insights, and helpful comments. I thought I was alone in this!

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October 05, 2013  11:45pm

I am really, really thankful I went to seminary. I originally started in the M.Div tract but as I was serving full time in ministry at the time, trying to study the amount of language requirements for the M.Div was causing me so much stress and anguish that I shifted to a MA. The amount of time to memorize so much was too much for me at that time. Something that also helped in the decision to drop out of the M.Div and shift to a MA was asking about 6 or 8 pastors who had M.Div's how much of the language studies they had in seminary do they use today or remember. Every one of them said they can't remember most of it. They still valued in the study process for sermons being able to look up Greek and Hebrew, however they said they do that now with various Bible study programs on the computer. That ended up being the clincher for me in shifting to a MA vs. M.Div as I also wanted to spend time on what would be practically used in ministry. I ended up taking 2 classes for the MA which were introductory classes to biblical languages which I did find helpful, but that was 5 credits vs. 12 or 14 credits I think was required for Hebrew and Greek to graduate with a M.Div. I personally think in today's world with all the available helps out there today for word studies and looking into Greek and Hebrew, that seminaries should train students more in how to use the tools than all the memorization that is generally required. And the MA does sure seem plenty, unless one is going on to teach at a seminary or college and needs to know the languages more. But for the average pastor in today's world and economy I fully agree with James Miller and what he is saying here. I hope seminaries do figure out how to survive as they are needed. But may they also rethink what pastors need today too to lead in our culture and world. Thanks James for this article!

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