Updating Archaeology

New Directions in Biblical Archaeology, edited by David Noel Freedman and Jonas C. Greenfield (Doubleday, 1969, 191 pp., $6.95), is reviewed by Elmer B. Smick, professor of Old Testament, Covenant Theological Seminary, St. Louis, Missouri.

This book is the product of a symposium on biblical archaeology sponsored by the Department of Near Eastern Languages of the University of California at Berkeley and the biblical-studies faculties of the Graduate Theological Union of Berkeley and San Francisco Theological Seminary. Editors Freedman and Greenfield claim for these articles the substance of the 1966 symposium with overtones of 1969. For those who want to keep abreast of recent developments, viewpoints, excavations and discoveries in Palestinian archaeology relating to the biblical period this small book is worth its price.

The American contributors and the Israeli archaeologists (Yohanan Aharoni, Yigael Yadin, and Moshe Dothan) are outstanding scholars, and most are field archaeologists. Professor Albright heads the list and wrote the first article, “The Impact of Biblical Archaeology in Biblical Research—1966.” Here Albright appears quite defensive as he attempts to answer some of his critics, who in recent years have become very vocal. He deserves the credit for having shaped the direction of Palestinian archaeology in the last generation, for his definitive research in comparative Semitic philology (especially as it relates to the Old Testament text and history), and for his interest in epigraphic dating of the Dead Sea Scrolls, which is now largely the province of his distinguished disciple F. M. Cross.

Albright gives a needed warning of the dangers of reasoning from analogy in the reconstruction of biblical ...

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