THE EARLY CHURCH


Clement of Rome (died c.96), and Ignatius (c.35-c.107) document the continued operation of spiritual gifts among average Christians.

Irenaeus of Lyon (c.130-202) describes charismatic gifts, especially prophecy, in his church in southern Gaul (modern France), warning against Gnostics who fabricate the gifts to win the naive.

Tertullian (c.160-c.225) and the Montanist "New Prophets" (whose condemnations as heretics has recently been questioned) practice healing, prophecy, and tongues. Tertullian separates "apostles," who have the Spirit fully, from "believers," who have it partially.

Antony of Egypt (251?-356) is said to practice healing and the discernment of spirits, as well as perform signs and wonders.

The heretical Messalians (c.360-800) teach that everyone is possessed from birth by a personal demon, driven out only by prayer and the reception of the Holy Spirit. They practice laying on of hands for this Spirit baptism, and they expect visual proof of the demon's departure.

THE MIDDLE AGES


Augustine (354-430) declares (as does John Chrysostom in the East) that glossolalia has ceased but also reports numerous divine healings.

Simeon the New Theologian (949-1022), an Eastern mystic, reports his most intimate spiritual experiences, including a "baptism in the Holy Spirit" distinct from those graces received in the sacraments. This Spirit baptism is accompanied by compunction (awareness of one's guilt before God), penitence, copious tears, and an intensified awareness of the Trinity as light dwelling within.

Hildegard of Bingen (1098-1179) experiences ecstatic visions, gifts of tears and compunction, wisdom, knowledge, and prophecy. Numerous miracles are attributed to her. She also is said to sing "concerts" in ...

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