Churches are at once a source, a location, and a cure of crime. In recent years, a significant number of pastors and parishioners have been involved in sexual abuse and fraud. In 2011, the cost of faith-based fraud was estimated at $34 billion annually; in comparison, $31 billion is donated annually to worldwide missions. In addition, the amount of violent crime on church property has been steadily increasing over the past decade. Despite these grim statistics, recent studies have suggested the work of faith-based organizations and involvement in church life can dramatically reduce both crime and recidivism in criminals.