Martin Luther

1483 Born at Eisleben, November 10

1484 Parents, Hans and Margaretha Luder, move family to Mansfeld, where Hans works in copper mines

1492 Attends school in Mansfeld

1497 Attends school in Magdeburg

1498 Attends school in Eisenach

1501 Enters University of Erfurt

1502 Receives B.A. at Erfurt

1505 Earns M.A. at Erfurt; begins law studies; in thunderstorm on July 2, vows to become a monk; enters Order of Augustinian Hermits

1507 Ordained and celebrates first Mass

1509 Becomes bachelor of Bible

1510 Visits Rome

1511 Transferred to Augustinian house at Wittenberg

1512 Becomes doctor of theology

1513 Begins lecturing on The Psalms

1515 Lectures on Romans; appointed district vicar over ten monasteries

1516 Begins lecturing on Galatians

1517 Begins lecturing on Hebrews; on October 31, posts “95 Theses” on indulgences

1518 At meeting of Augustinians in Heidelberg, defends his theology; in October, appears before Cardinal Cajetan at Augsburg, but refuses to recant; in December, Frederick the Wise protects Luther from being handed over to Rome.

1519 Understands the “righteousness of God” as “passive righteousness with which God justifies us by faith”; in July, debates Professor John Eck at Leipzig and denies supreme authority of popes and councils

1520 Papal bull “Exsurge Domine” gives Luther 60 days to recant or be excommunicated; writes 3 seminal documents: To the Christian Nobility, On the Babylonian Captivity of the Church, and The Freedom of a Christian; burns papal bull and canon law

1521 Excommunicated by the papal bull Decet Romanum Pontificem; at Diet of Worms in April, he refuses to recant writings, and edict (in May) condemns him as heretic and outlaw; he is “kidnapped” ...

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