c. 140 Valentinus begins teaching Gnostic views in Rome

144 Marcion is excommunicated for Gnostic-like views

c. 175 Basilides espouses Gnostic teachings in Alexandria

c. 180 Irenaeus writes Against the Heresies, opposing Gnosticism

c. 450 Gnostic sects diminish

Forms of Gnosticism return with Paulicians (800s) and Albigensians (1200s)


c. 155 Polycarp and others from Asia Minor advocate Nisan 14 as date of Easter

c. 190 Pope Victor insists on Sunday observance and tries to stamp out Quartodecimanism (“14th-ism”), though Irenaeus advocates tolerance

325 Council of Nicea accepts Alexandrian method of determining Easter

400 Rome begins using Alexandrian method

In the Middle Ages, the Celtic church (in 625) and the church in Gaul (in the 800s) join the West in adopting the Alexandrian method


c. 157 Montanus begins prophesying that the Heavenly Jerusalem will soon descend in Phrygia, in Asia Minor

170s Montanism develops ecstatic and ascetic practices

c. 190 Montanism condemned by church councils in Asia Minor

c. 207 Tertullian converts to Montanism

c. 400 Montanism wanes but survives in pockets

Though severly persecuted by Justinian I (483–565), Montanism survives into the 800s


c. 190s Monarchianism (emphasizing God’s monarchia, “unity”—not the three persons) spreads

c. 200 Noetus condemned at Rome for Patripassianism (“the father suffers-ism”), the teaching that the Father suffered as the Son

268 Council of Antioch deposes Paul of Samosata and condemns Sabellianism (i.e., modalism: Father, Son, and Spirit are temporary manifestations of the same being)

By the early 300s, most Monarchianists become Arians


249–250 Decian ...

Subscriber Access OnlyYou have reached the end of this Article Preview

To continue reading, subscribe now. Subscribers have full digital access.

Already a CT subscriber? for full digital access.