October 14, 1066: William the Conqueror leads the Normans to victory over the English Saxons in the Battle of Hastings. William’s also had great religious impact. He spent significant effort combatting paganism and bringing English Christianity into stricter conformity with Rome (in part by outlawing English Bibles and liturgy), which lasted through the English Reformation. He spent his last days in intense Christian devotion.
October 14, 1633: James II of England, whose conversion to Catholicism in 1670 created a constitutional crisis in Anglican Britain, is born.
October 14, 1644: William Penn, the Quaker founder of Pennsylvania and one of the most engaging religious figures of his age, is born in London.
October 14, 1656: Massachusetts enacts a law prohibiting "Quakerism" or harboring Quakers.
October 14, 1735: John and Charles Wesley, cofounders of Methodism, set sail for ministry in America (see issue 2: John Wesley and issue 69: Charles and John Wesley).
November 15, 1280: German theologian Albertus Magnus, teacher of Thomas Aquinas and defender of his theology (as well as a brilliant writer on Aristotelian thought), dies at age 87. Declared a doctor of the church in 1931 by Pope Pius XI, Pope Pius XII proclaimed him the patron of natural scientists in 1941 (see issue 73: Thomas Aquinas).
November 15, 1397: Thomas Parentuchelli, who would later take the name Nicholas V and is considered the best of the Renaissance popes, is born. As pope he led a ...