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In her new book on consumption, Laura Hartman opens with a panicky scene: Hartman standing frozen in front of fresh vegetables—overwhelmed with the choices and moral dilemmas (e.g., "Where, how, and by whom was this made?" "Is it right to spend so much more for organic?" "Do I really need this at all?") presented in each of them.

It's a scene that she suggests is common for those of us who care about "consumption ethics." In fact, Hartman says she wrote The Christian Consumer: Living Faithfully in a Fragile World because of scenes like that one—because we live in a time and place where the consumption choices are "mind-boggling" yet "morally important."

Hartman, who is a religion professor at Augustana College (Illinois), found that most existing literature on consumerism focuses on what is wrong with consumption rather than illuminating what good consumption can look like. Author Caryn Rivadeneira spoke with Hartman on why she offers a vision of consumption ethics.

You suggest that a good view of Christian consumption needs four distinctives: avoid sin, embrace creation, love the neighbor, and envision the future. How do you suggest we keep these considerations from being more noises in our heads?

Ultimately these four categories are habits of thought, which can lead to habits of action. I want to encourage people to spend time discerning their consumption habits more broadly and measure those habits against these four categories.

These are sort of long-term decisions and I think that they are best made in times of reflection rather than in times of decision-making or quick choices. Once we are accustomed to thinking in those ways, then it'll come naturally. We won't have to dance back and forth inside the grocery aisle.

As I began my research, I was very confused too. There were a lot of different voices out there saying many different things. So I started grouping them. The first two habits were a pretty obvious complement to each other. But then there were all these other people saying other things that didn't fit in with those two. It became clear that it wasn't just a negative "retract-retreat," "don't consume" versus a positive "yes, do," "go for it." There were these other concerns about "on what basis can we judge?" That's where I realized there was this big theme of neighbor love and of visions of the future.

You quote theologian Matthew Fox saying, "If we savored more, we'd consume less," and L. Shannon Jung saying, "If we truly enjoyed eating more, we would want to share more." How does enjoying what we own more make us better consumers?

The truth is, we aren't insatiable consumers. There is such a thing as satiation, as having enough. In fact, what we really want are not the things themselves but the experience that comes with them. We want the food, sort of. But what we really want is the nutrition, the flavor, and the enjoyment. Or, I don't want a television sitting in my living room but I do want to be entertained by it.

One insight from the Christian tradition is that God nourishes us, God blesses us, and God wants us to be blessed. But the same God doesn't require a whole lot of stuff with which to do it. If we can find ways to savor what we have and to fulfill our true needs, we'll find ourselves less greedy.

In some ways, this is the tragedy of consumerism: the consumerist culture recognizes that we're all needy but tries to fill it with the wrong stuff. It's a bottomless pit unless it's filled with the right stuff. We can just keep consuming and consuming and never be satisfied because we're not getting what we truly want.

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The Christian Consumer: Living Faithfully in a Fragile World
Oxford University Press
272 pp., $33.95
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