The Occult Tumult

Kingdom of Darkness, by F. W. Thomas (Logos, 1973, 150 pp., $1.95 pb), Soundings in Satanism, assembled by F. J. Sheed (Sheed and Ward, 1972, 236 pp., $6.95), Like a Roaring Lion, by George Otis (Time-Light, 1973, 182 pp., $1.95 pb), The Satan-Seller, by Mike Warnke (Logos, 1972, 214 pp., $4.95, $2.50 pb), The Back Side of Satan, by Morris Cerullo (Creation, 1973, 224 pp., $4.95), The Christian and the Occult, by Roger C. Palms (Judson, 1972, 125 pp., $2.50 pb), Out! In the Name of Jesus, by Pat Brooks (Creation, 1972, 238 pp., $4.95), Deliver Us From Evil, by Don Basham (Chosen, 1972, 223 pp., $4.95), The Return of Magic, by David Farren (Harper & Row, 1972, 118 pp., $4.95), Principalities and Powers, by John Warwick Montgomery (Bethany Fellowship, 1973, 224 pp., $4.95), Satan Is Alive and Well on Planet Earth, by Hal Lindsey (Zondervan, 1972, 255 pp., $4.95, $2.25 pb), Satan, Satanism and Witchcraft, by Richard W. DeHaan (Zondervan, 1972, 125 pp., $3.50, $.95 pb), The Fortune Sellers, by Gary A. Wilburn (Regal, 1972, 223 pp., $1.25 pb), Escape From Witchcraft, by Roberta Blankenship (Zondervan, 1972, 114 pp., $.95 pb), and Strange Things Are Happening, by Roger Elwood (D. C. Cook, 1973, 127 pp., $.95 pb), are reviewed by E. Russell Chandler, religion writer, the “Los Angeles Times,” Los Angeles, California.

Want to read about an ex-Jesuit who married a hereditary witch? A ouija board that “screamed” as it was being burned? And do you know what antinopomancy means? All this—and much, much more—is contained in this sampling of fifteen current titles in the battery of books dealing with the supernatural.

Thirteen look at the devil from an evangelical perspective, and five of these through charismatic lenses. Six books, all paperbacks, can be put in a journalistic or personal-experience category. Two more look upon magic, Satanism, and the occult either sympathetically or at least from a neutral corner. And two others reviewed here, because of their special interest, will be considered separately. (Whatever else can be said about the occult it certainly has produced a lot of books; see a review of eleven earlier titles in the December 8, 1972, issue, pages 19–22.)

Starting with The Return of Magic, the book by the ex-Jesuit with the witching wife, we find a contorted but interesting analysis of the current occult scene and an openness to magic and witchcraft “as a valid response to the demise of traditional religion.” Author Farren, who does not quote Scripture—most of the other authors do—believes that witchcraft and Christian orthodoxy can be reconciled, and that the Church should have dialogue with occultism. That suggestion startles the evangelical, and the serious student who wants to know this side of the argument may find the book stimulating if not convincing.

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The other nonpareil in this stack of fifteen (I admit the selection is arbitrary; CHRISTIANITY TODAY’s book editor shipped me these as representative of the burgeoning occult list) is Sheed’s Soundings in Satanism. The book even got a column-length review in Time last summer, but doubtless only because the introduction is written by John Updike. He sounds off in only five and one-half pages of the total book, however, and though his observation that the existence of the devil is a “metaphysical possibility, if not necessity” may be a revelation to him now, it hardly rates a yawn among believing Christians.

About a third of the book is reruns of material on Satanism published twenty years before; two studies of witch-burning have been added. The chapter “Satanism Today” by Father Richard Woods, O.P., is fresh and helpful, but $6.95 will buy instead three paperbacks all of greater worth for understanding the occult tumult.

Let’s review the six paperbacks referred to before.

Roger Elwood in Strange Things Are Happening takes a view diametrical to Farren’s about magic and the occult: “Occultism has become a counterfeit faith,” he says. The book is a good summary, and Elwood is an accomplished author, but he is skimpy on sources for some statements. Kingdom of Darkness by Thomas, The Fortune Sellers by Wilburn, Satan, Satanism and Witchcraft by DeHaan, and The Christian and the Occult by Palms are similar in content to Elwood’s book. DeHaan has good definitions and summaries; Wilburn, succinct explanations.

All these books warn of the apparently innocent ouija board. Wilburn’s explanation of how it works is convincing:

In every case where people believe in the power of the ouija board, you will find a good percentage of correct predictions and answers, whereas with people who disbelieve, the error factor is nearly 100 percent. The reason for this, I conclude, is that the supernatural world is encountered in the final analysis through faith, not merely through human reason. As it requires faith in God through Jesus Christ for man to live in true spiritual union with God, so it requires faith to align oneself with the evil spirits which cause the triangle to glide across the face of the ouija board.

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Palms’s $2.50 paperback is the best of the six in this “journalistic” category, I think, because it is a concise overview with a helpful history for background (chapter four). Every pastor should have a copy for ready reference when he is asked about astral projection, astrology, automatic handwriting, black and white magic, clairvoyance and clairaudience, divination, the black mass, ESP, I Ching, mediums, numerology, palmistry, and so on.

Escape From Witchcraft is a quick-moving autobiography of a young Chicago girl who developed a reputation as a witch—and was delivered by Jesus Christ as mediated through Youth For Christ. Good teen reading, and it could deter someone who is inclined to tamper with the occult.

Could a book written by an evangelical with the intent of putting down the occult actually allure readers to it? Thomas, in Kingdom of Darkness, deals with this, as do Palms and Lindsey. Says Thomas:

Surely Christians will not become dope addicts by reading a book that exposes and denounces dope addiction. Nor will they become practitioners of the black arts because they read a book which exposes occultism. It is imperative that we know our Enemy, the better to combat him.

Still, to move on to the five of the fifteen books with a definite charismatic influence, The Satan-Seller by Mike Warnke stopped just short of making me feel uncomfortably oppressed by the spirit of evil. So graphic are this young man’s descriptions of being a Satanist high priest that the latter section of the book, on being snatched from the very jaws of hell, comes as a cleansing shower. For the person who has been sucked into the vicious vortex of the occult, however, this book may ring truest of all.

George Otis and Morris Cerullo, two other charismatic leaders, have written similar books. Cerullo has a large supply of information, but his treatment of it, to this newspaper reporter, seems highly opinionated, with onesided evidence. A sensitive point to me is his wholesale condemnation of teaching about the occult in schools; such studies, I submit, don’t always lead to demon possession, unstable personalities, mental derangement, and suicide, as Cerullo suggests. He closes with some positive steps for the ensnared and with a sermon.

Otis’s book centers on the wiles of Satan, the roaring lion, and how to cage him. It is good writing, but somewhat preachy. He pigeonholes practices, and assails the rock opera Godspell as “sheer blasphemy!”

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Pat Brooks traces her battle with personal devils in Out! In the Name of Jesus, an emotional recounting of deliverance that shows the influence of another charismatic work considered here: Deliver Us From Evil, by Basham.

A sample from Out!, in which the demon madness is being expelled:

Stella’s eyes closed and her hands reached upward in a tortuous, pleading gesture as great, writhing, snakelike motions slithered through her body. An earsplitting scream came from her lips as the demon … left her for good.

This is standard fare.

To me, the most gripping of the fifteen volumes is Basham’s book. It reads like a fabulous novel. He is a gifted writer; he holds your interest, and laces the eerie and the improbable with humor. Though demons lurch and leer from every page, Basham seems transparent in taking the reader, step by step, with him as he is reluctantly drawn into the “deliverance ministry.” A recognized leader in this field, Basham is at first skeptical about demon possession. Along the way he helpfully makes a distinction between the “carnal self” and “evil spirits”—both within the province of Satan:

The carnal self … represents an actual part of ourselves, while evil spirits are separate entities which have only taken up residence within us. Evil which is part of us must (by prayer and self-discipline) be put to death.… Evil which is not an integral element of our nature but has invaded us from the outside must be evicted. This is the scriptural basis for a deliverance ministry.

Basham later outlines tests for determining if you’ve been invaded. By the time you’re nearing the end of the book it seems quite natural that when an olive jar just “jumped” off the refrigerator shelf, hitting his daughter in the foot when she opened the door, Mrs. Basham should speak out indignantly: “Satan, in Jesus’ name, I rebuke you! That was nothing more than a dirty trick of the devil!”

Hal Lindsey, to move to author number fourteen, confesses that Satan Is Alive and, well, he, too, has cast out at least one demon. But he cautions that “some well-meaning Christians today have a tendency to go overboard about demons”: the trap of attributing to demons what is actually the work of the flesh. He discounts the possibility of a “lust” or “envy” demon: “I do not believe there are specific demons … who can only do one thing.”

Lindsey, who takes pains to clarify his position on tongues (a gift for some, but not necessary for being filled with the Holy Spirit), lays out biblical background on Satan, original sin, and the fall. He is lavish in diagnosing social, educational, and moral ills of the day, and ties this in with the portended future world ruler, the anti-Christ, focal character of much prognostication in his famous Late Great Planet Earth. Asserting that a daily relationship with Christ is more effective than periodic exorcisms and spiritual jags to duck Satan’s fiery darts, Lindsey includes basic teaching material on weapons of warfare and the Christian walk.

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Why has his Satan book sold two million copies? Probably because of the occult craze and the Lindsey name. Credit is also due co-writer Carol Carlson, who teamed with Lindsey for Late Great Planet. The Satan book is tilted to reach today’s counter-culture kids, especially those who have vibrated to Lindsey’s style. Like:

Satan is not the man below, heaping coals into an eternal furnace. He’s the original “jet-setter”; he’s right on with the latest cause.… What a picture! Satan trucking all over the earth, constantly doing his thing in every spot he can! He’s working in our world system through governments, education, business and culture. You name it—he’ll tame it.

Last, but far from least, is John W. Montgomery’s Principalities and Powers, subtitled “A New Look at the World of the Occult.” The professor-historian-author gives us the only really scholarly volume of the fifteen. Also illustrations, including hitherto unpublished cartoons on the occult by C. S. Lewis; appendices; a ghost story by Montgomery; and a Reformation-era letter on demon possession. Dipping into “hidden history,” Montgomery gives a heavyweight examination of almost everything you’ve always wanted to conjure, from Cabala to werewolves.

On astrological judgments, the articulate evangelical observes: “They are like the heavily weighted children’s toys, which, no matter how you throw them, always manage to stand upright (in astrology, the ‘weighting’ … of the system is its ambiguity).”

And if this “weighty” review has left you less than perfectly clear about which books to buy, get all fifteen, throw them in the air, and read those that land upright.

Carl Henry And Friends

New Strides of Faith, by Carl F. H. Henry (Moody, 1972, 140 pp., $2.25 pb), and Quest For Reality: Christianity and the Counter Culture, edited by Carl F. H. Henry (InterVarsity, 1973, 164 pp., $2.95 pb), are reviewed by Robert K. Johnston, doctoral candidate, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina.

The former editor of CHRISTIANITY TODAY has not lightened his work load since leaving his post with the magazine. These two books are only two of the multiple threads of Carl F. H. Henry’s continuing and varied ministry.

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New Strides of Faith brings together sixteen lectures, sermons, and articles that Henry produced between the end of 1968 and 1971. Given for different purposes to audiences of varied backgrounds, his statements nevertheless have a personal unity of thought and style based in the man himself and his understanding of the Christian faith. Throughout the book Henry returns to several favorite themes, much as a symphony might, and a large part of the pleasure in the book comes not from continually hearing new ideas but from listening to recurring themes brought forth in fresh and thought provoking ways.

With sweeping strokes Henry divides contemporary Christianity into two broad camps and finds points to criticize in each. Ecumenical (modern theology of whatever stripe) Christianity, he says, “neglects the truth of revelation and advances its cause through theological imprecision.” Furthermore, it has in the process lost its missionary vigor. Evangelical Christianity, on the other hand, “suffers from isolation and independency.” Further, the quality of its fellowship does not distinguish itself in the world, and its leadership fails to extend into the whole social order of work, education, and culture.

Evangelicalism lacks spiritual confidence and scope; ecumenical Christianity lacks a rational knowledge of God as revealed in the Scriptures. Hobbled in both limbs, Christianity is threatened with irrelevance “by the year 1975” unless it repents and seeks regeneration and regathering.

Henry in this book speaks as a prophet, and the Church universal needs to hear him. He is particularly telling in his criticism of evangelicalism. Less effective, for communication, is his critique of non-evangelicals. The lectures too easily slip into “we” and “them,” and anyone who is not a “we” might feel alienated and not hear the often telling remarks about “them.” Henry, of course, presents these addresses to evangelical audiences. Nevertheless, it weakens an apologetic effort to create unnecessary distances, and it is misleading theologically to suggest excluding from fellowship those Christians whose fuzzy theology places them left of evangelicalism but still within believing Christendom.

Henry states that the test of fellowship is “fidelity to God’s Word and union with Christ” (the order is not definitive, but still significant). As one who seeks fidelity to God’s Word in all things, this reviewer would, nevertheless, have wanted Henry to say that the test of fellowship is “union with Christ” alone. The test within the fellowship is “fidelity to God’s Word.” Evangelicals must not define the Church universal too narrowly.

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The challenge of Henry’s addresses is significant. New Strides in Faith presents in popular form the insights of one of the Church’s finest theologians, as he seeks to evaluate the life and mission of the Church in the modern world.

The second book, Quest for Reality: Christianity and the Counter Culture, is appropriate for a wider audience and is an excellent addition to evangelical scholarship. In October, 1971, Henry, as director of the Institute for Advanced Christian Studies (a loose, umbrella organization seeking to foster evangelical scholarship through such means as research grants and conferences), organized an Invitational Scholars’ Conference that attempted to bring into focus certain “frontier trends and issues” in contemporary culture and to see them in light of the best of evangelical thought. The book is a compilation of the papers offered at the Chicago conference. It gives the reader an introduction to the thought of some of the leading evangelicals in our universities and seminaries.


Mission Handbook: North American Protestant Ministries Overseas, edited by Edward Dayton (MARC [919 W. Huntington Dr., Monrovia, Cal. 91016], 645 pp., $10). The tenth edition of this standard reference work is the first to be hardbound and to have regular book-size pages. One hundred pages of interpretative articles precede alphabetical listings with data of agencies and countries. Well indexed. Essential for theological, journalistic, and major public and collegiate libraries.

The Local Church in Ministry, by William Pinson, Jr. (Broadman, 146 pp., $3.50 pb). A very practical manual on how congregations and their sub-groups can help. Fifty-eight areas of need are listed, with specific suggestions and books for further information. Then there are 102 examples of Christian service projects. Highly recommended.

Sent to Be Vulnerable, by Creath Davis (Zondervan, 180 pp., $1.95 pb). A definitive answer for concerned Christians who desire a contemporary Christ-like life of involvement in today’s chaotic society. Arranged for personal reading or for small discussion groups. Very practical.

There’s a New World Coming, by Hal Lindsey (Vision House [1415 E. McFadden, Santa Ana, Cal. 92705], 308 pp., $4.95, $2.95 pb). Latest from the best-selling author. This time it’s a verse-by-verse, pre-tribulation interpretation of the Book of Revelation. Far from exhaustive.

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The Christian Counselor’s Manual, by Jay Adams (Baker and Presbyterian and Reformed, 476 pp., $7.95). A sequel to the author’s well-known Competent to Counsel; presupposes agreement with the distinctives the earlier work contains. This book gives many specific examples, answers questions raised in the author’s seminars, and in other ways supplements the earlier volume.

You Are Promise, by Martin E. Marty (Argus, 160 pp., $5.95). Call, with Christian overtones, to accept and use the potential you have been given as an individual.

Jesus—The Jew’s Jew, by Zola Levitt (Creation, 106 pp., $1.45 pb). Informal presentation of the matters most crucial in Christian witness to Jews.

Don’t Sit on the Bed, by William G. Justice (Broadman, 64 pp., $1.95 pb). Basically a handbook of do’s and don’ts in hospital visitation. A good guide for those who are apprehensive about visiting sick friends and relatives, with specific suggestions for pastors.

How Persons Grow in Christian Community, by William Koppe (Fortress, 206 pp., $5.95 pb). Results of a major Lutheran statistical study as related to childhood and youth development within the church.

The Total Woman, by Marabel Morgan (Revell, 192 pp., $4.95). A how-to book on reviving stale marriages, complete with practice assignments. Aimed at full-time housewives. It urges giving in order to receive, and good use of time and talents.

Frontiers For the Church Today, by Robert McAfee Brown (Oxford, 149 pp., $5.95). Thoughts by a prominent Protestant on the role of the Church on such frontiers as ecumenism, the secular, revolution, and technology.

The Gospel of Paul, by Robert C. Campbell (Judson, 62 pp., $1.50 pb). The teachings of Paul primarily as found in Romans and First Corinthians, presented by topics. Campbell is general secretary of the American Baptist Churches.

David Wilkerson Speaks Out, by David Wilkerson (Bethany Fellowship, 127 pp., $1.95 pb). Short, provocative essays on social, moral, and spiritual issues by an esteemed evangelist. Very helpful.

Enough and to Spare, by Sherwood E. Wirt (World Wide, 200 pp., $1.45 pb). Collection of editorials by the editor of Decision that have appeared over the past thirteen years.

The Art of Media Instruction, by Don Gillis (Crescendo [P.O. Box 28218, Dallas, Texas 75228], 323 pp., n.p.). Instructional guide to the use of audio-visual materials. Chapter devoted to innovative uses of the media within the Church.

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The Meaning of God, by Robert H. King (Fortress, 166 pp., $6.95). Approaches God from the overworked, difficult, and none-too-helpful perspective of linguistic analysis.

How to Organize a Mission Program in the Local Church (Louis Neibauer [York Rd. and Township Line, Jenkintown, Pa. 19046], 227 pp., $12). Three large-page booklets in a ring-binder make up a highly practical manual on organizing, educating, and promoting missions-mindedness. Prominent evangelical missions leaders are among the contributors and consultants.

Explaining Judaism to Jews and Christians by Samuel M. Silver (Arco, 142 pp., $4.95, $1.50 pb), Invitation to the Talmud, by Jacob Neusner (Harper & Row, 261 pp., $7.95), and The International Jewish Encyclopedia, by Ben Isaacson and Deborah Wigoder (Prentice-Hall, 336 pp., $10.95). Overviews of Judaism from various stances. The first deals superficially with the basic terms and definitions of Judaism from a Reformed perspective. The second is a noted scholar’s systematic look at the Jewish customs as recorded in the Talmud; he presents the writing as religious literature rather than laws. The third is a comprehensive reference book compiled in Israel by a rabbi and a convert to Judaism from Christianity.

The Political Christ, by Alan Richardson (Westminster, 118 pp., $3.95). One interpretation of the involvement of Jesus and the early Church in the political movements of the day with strained application of these “principles” for our day.

Adult Education in Church and Synagogue: A Review of Selected Recent Literature, by Huey Long (Publications in Continuing Education [224 Huntington Hall, Syracuse, N.Y. 13210], 55 pp., $2.50 pb). For college religious-education teachers and denominational program administrators.

The Gospel According to Superman, by John T. Galloway (Holman, 141 pp., $2.95). Thought-provoking contrast between the man-made god of the comic strip and the living God. Some strained analogies, but the Superman model does reveal some biblical truths. Enjoyably written.

That You May Believe, by Homer Hailey (Baker, 196 pp., $3.95). A non-technical study of the Gospel of John that proceeds topically rather than verse by verse. Especially aimed at confirming belief in the deity of Christ.

Riddles in History, by Cyrus H. Gordon (Crown, 188 pp., $7.95), The God-Kings and the Titans, by James Bailey (St. Martin’s, 350 pp., $9.95), and The Man Who Led Columbus to America, by Paul H. Chapman (Judson Press [5 Dunwoody Park, Atlanta, Ga. 30341], 202 pp., $6). Three books dealing with pre-Columbian exploration of the Americas. Gordon, a well-known student of the ancient east Mediterranean region, tells a detailed story of the discovery and meaning of several inscribed artifacts. Bailey speculates that world-wide travel occurred as early as 800 B.C. Chapman alleges that journeys to America in the sixth century by Irish monks led by St. Brendan provided information later used by Columbus. For those with an interest in New World archaeology.

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Living Quotations For Christians, edited by Sherwood E. Wirt and Kersten Beckstrom (Harper & Row, 290 pp., $7.95). 3,500 quotations in 350 categories that range from acceptance to zeal, taken from the Bible and from people both famous and unknown. A helpful resource book.

Reforming School Finance, by Robert D. Reischauer and Robert W. Hartman (Brookings Institution [1775 Massachusetts Ave. N.W., Washington, D. C. 20036], 185 pp., $6.95, $2.50 pb). General discussion of financing with some specific comments on the position of non-public, denominational schools. Thought-provoking observations from a thoroughly businesslike point of view.

This Is the Life, by D. James Kennedy, (Regal, 109 pp., $1.25 pb). Useful “follow-up” guide for new Christians.

A World More Human, A Church More Christian, by George Devine (Alba, 195 pp., $3.95). Ten scholarly essays from College Theology Society members (chiefly Roman Catholic professors) on such subjects as “Some Problems in Modern Christology,” “Japanese Religiosity …,” and “Revolution in Catholic Theology.”

The Funeral Encyclopedia, edited by Charles Wallis (Baker, 327 pp., $3.95 pb). Reprint of a 1953 reference book. Provides more than one hundred sermons, poems, and prayers as examples.

Western Theology (103 pp., $4.95) and One Inch From the Fence (160 pp., $5.25), both by Wes Seeliger (Forum House [1610 LaVista Rd. N.E., Atlanta, Ga. 30329], 160 pp., $5.25). Two humorous attempts by an Episcopal minister to depict truths about contemporary Christianity. The first portrays the Church through caricatures of the old wild West. The second is a collection of essays and anecdotes to illustrate Christian situations.

New Life, New Lifestyle, by Michael Green (InterVarsity, 159 pp., $1.50 pb). Excellent follow-up book for new Christians. Deals biblically with such areas as money, self-discipline, sex, and suffering. Stresses that total change does not occur overnight.

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Alcohol: Our Biggest Drug Problem, by Joel Fort (McGraw-Hill, 180 pp., $6.95), and Alcohol and Your Health by Louise B. Burgess (Charles [8350 Santa Monica Blvd., Los Angeles, Ca. 90068], 470 pp., $12.50). Common agreement on the dangers of alcohol from two directions. The first, by a doctor, presents the drug aspects; the second includes in full a major congressional report and discusses the legal aspects.

Beyond the Rat Race, by Arthur G. Gish (Herald Press, 190 pp., $1.45 pb). An easy-to-read but provocative look at the “simple life.” Urges Christians to develop not only frugality but also simplicity (rather than duplicity or circumlocution) in thought and speech. Too much of New Testament teaching is suppressed by modern materialism. No one will agree with all that Gish suggests, maybe not even most of it. But it is still worth looking at.

The Cotton Patch Version of Hebrews and the General Epistles, by Clarence Jordon (Association, 93 pp., $4.95, $2.95 pb). For those who liked the previous paraphrases of the Gospels and Paul’s epistles, here is the last in the series, a free paraphrase of Hebrews, James, Peter, John, and Jude.

The Struggle For Human Dignity, by Leslie E. Moser (Nash, 251 pp., $10). An all-out attack on the disgraceful thesis of B. F. Skinner. Furnishes much helpful material for battling Skinner on his own naturalistic terms, but lacks any theological perspective.

Perhaps the most charming and enjoyable essay (though in some ways the least tied in to the conference theme) is the one in which D. Elton Trueblood expands upon Reinhold Niebuhr’s concept of “the individual and the community.” Among the other more provocative essays are those by James M. Houston, George I. Mavrodes, David O. Moberg, and Clark H. Pinnock.

The format of the book contributes much to its value, for Quest for Reality offers the careful reader a comparison of various evangelical methodologies. The book is divided into five sections. In each, one scholar presents a position paper that is followed by two critical responses by his colleagues. While the spirit of dialogue is congenial, there is, nevertheless, no hesitancy on the part of most respondents to challenge, contradict, or enlarge upon another’s presentation.

For example, Ronald H. Nash in his essay “Marcuse, Reich and the Rational” finds little of value in the philosophy of the radical left. Instead, he offers a frontal assault on the “irrationality” of the counter-culture. He argues that because Marcuse and Reich (to take two representatives) claim that truth is relative and that all beliefs are conditioned economically and socially, then Marcuse, Reich, and their followers should recognize that their own beliefs are relative and vitiated as well. Arthur F. Holmes follows Nash’s presentation by pointing out that it is false to claim as Nash does that Marcuse’s dialectical logic has abandoned basic logical principles such as the Law of Non-contradiction. Mavrodes offers a similar critique, pointing out that Reich’s use of the term “logic” refers (however vaguely) to one’s world view, and not to a new (and illogical) analytical structure to replace Aristotle’s.

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Mavrodes, in the second half of his paper, develops an alternate approach to Nash’s for conversation with the counter-culture, one based on an analogy with Paul’s dialogue with the Athenians. There was much that was perverse and irrational in Athens; so too with the counter-culture. But Paul recognized among the Athenians their profound (and God-given!) insight that there was a God who was as yet unknown to them. Similarly, says Mavrodes, can we find in the city of the counter-culture some insight, some word that God has already spoken? Mavrodes, along with James Daane, Clark Pinnock, David Moberg, and Merold Westphal, argues that this is indeed the case, and that evangelicals must not close themselves off from God’s word to them through the counter-culture.

This, in the end, is the book’s chief contribution: its desire to point out the value to evangelicals in learning from the insights of the counter-culture. The counter-culture is addressing us. As Clark Pinnock says in his excellent response. “The Secular Prophets and the Christian Faith”: “We had better listen to what the Spirit has to say to the Churches.”

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