I have been trying to imagine a church without music.

The organ is boarded up. Hymnals are dropped in the paper-recycling bin. Strings are taken off the guitars and pianos; handbells are melted down. No preludes, offertories, or grand hymns. No exuberant choruses. No one is allowed to sing or play an instrument, or listen to one. The Book of Psalms is torn out of the Bible.

I can’t do it. Once I wake from that nightmare, I realize that music has always irrepressibly welled up in the souls of Christians. The first believers sang “psalms, hymns, and spiritual songs, making melody in their hearts to the Lord” (Eph. 5:19). Roman governor Pliny, after investigating the suspicious practices of Christians (in A.D. 111), discovered they met before daybreak each morning and “recited a hymn antiphonally to Christ, as to a god.”

Bishop Ambrose, who helped lead Augustine to Christ, instituted (or reintroduced) hymn singing in Western church services in 386. Gregory the Great, one of the most influential church leaders of all time, wrote “Antiphonar,” a collection of chants, in 600. Charlemagne’s son installed an organ in the palace chapel at Aachen, in 826. Polyphonic music began to develop and, a few centuries later, replaced Gregorian chant. Many of the major advances in musical notation and forms were made by abbots and nuns, eager to praise their God.

But medieval hymns were not sung by the congregation. Martin Luther, who coproduced a hymnal in 1524, helped return hymns to the people, declaring that “I place music next to theology and give it the highest praise.” German chorales continued to be written and were used, for example, among the Pietists and Moravians.

Yet as late as 1700, English-speaking believers lacked a truly vibrant ...

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