Major Crusades to the East: Christian History Timeline
Seljuk Turks defeat Byzantine armies at Manzikert
Anselm serves as archbishop of Canterbury
The First Crusade
Baldwin I becomes King of Jerusalem
Crusader military order, the Hospitallers of St. John, recognized
Bernard founds Cistercian monastery of Clairvaux
Order of Knights Templar founded to protect pilgrims
Abelard shocks theologians with his “Yes and No,” seemingly contradictory statements of theology
Turkish chief Zengi takes Edessa from crusaders
· Defend Eastern Christians from Muslim aggression.
· Make pilgrimages to Jerusalem safer.
· Redirect knights’ aggression.
· Recapture the Holy Sepulcher.
· Pope Urban II, who called for the crusade in November 1095.
· Peter the Hermit, preacher who recruited a first wave of crusaders, mostly peasants.
· Baldwin of Boulogne, Godfrey of Bouillon, and other French princes who led a second wave.
The first wave, an unauthorized “people’s crusade,” massacred Jews and plundered Eastern Christian territory, before being slaughtered by Muslims near Nicea in 1096.
A second wave, led by princes, moved into Asia Minor that summer and won strategic battles at Nicea and Dorylaeum. After a seven-month siege, Antioch was captured in June 1098.
With great violence the crusaders captured Jerusalem in the summer of 1099. Four crusader states were established in the Holy Land.
Carmelite order founded by 11 crusaders who live as hermits on Mt. Carmel
Oxford University founded
Saladin becomes vizier in Egypt
Peter Waldo, founder of Waldensians, begins to preach
The tower of Pisa built
Saladin’s forces crush Christian army at Hattin and take Jerusalem
Second Crusade(1145–1148)MissionTo ...