1071
Seljuk Turks defeat Byzantine armies at Manzikert

1093-1109

Anselm serves as archbishop of Canterbury

1095-99

The First Crusade

1100

Baldwin I becomes King of Jerusalem

1113

Crusader military order, the Hospitallers of St. John, recognized

1115

Bernard founds Cistercian monastery of Clairvaux

1118

Order of Knights Templar founded to protect pilgrims

1121

Abelard shocks theologians with his “Yes and No,” seemingly contradictory statements of theology

1144

Turkish chief Zengi takes Edessa from crusaders


First Crusade

(1095–1099)

Mission
· Defend Eastern Christians from Muslim aggression.
· Make pilgrimages to Jerusalem safer.
· Redirect knights’ aggression.
· Recapture the Holy Sepulcher.

Leaders

· Pope Urban II, who called for the crusade in November 1095.
· Peter the Hermit, preacher who recruited a first wave of crusaders, mostly peasants.
· Baldwin of Boulogne, Godfrey of Bouillon, and other French princes who led a second wave.

Outcome

The first wave, an unauthorized “people’s crusade,” massacred Jews and plundered Eastern Christian territory, before being slaughtered by Muslims near Nicea in 1096.

A second wave, led by princes, moved into Asia Minor that summer and won strategic battles at Nicea and Dorylaeum. After a seven-month siege, Antioch was captured in June 1098.

With great violence the crusaders captured Jerusalem in the summer of 1099. Four crusader states were established in the Holy Land.



1145–48
Second Crusade

1155

Carmelite order founded by 11 crusaders who live as hermits on Mt. Carmel

1167-68

Oxford University founded

1169

Saladin becomes vizier in Egypt

c. 1173

Peter Waldo, founder of Waldensians, begins to preach

1174

The tower of Pisa built

1187

Saladin’s forces crush Christian army at Hattin and take Jerusalem

Second Crusade(1145–1148)MissionTo ...

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