June 27, 444: Cyril, patriarch of Alexandria and author of several writings on the dual natures of Christ, dies. He opposed Nestorius, who supposedly taught there were two separate persons in the Incarnate Christ, one divine and the other human. Historians doubt, however, whether or not Nestorius actually taught this. In any case, Cyril deposed Nestorius in 430 (see issue 51: Heresy in the Early Church).
June 27, 1933: James Mountain, English revivalist and hymnwriter ("Like a River Glorious"), dies.
October 24, 1260: France's Chartres Cathedral, the purest example of Gothic architecture, is consecrated.
October 24, 1648: The Peace of Westphalia ends central Europe's Thirty Years War. Extending equal political rights to Catholics and Protestants (including religious minorities), the peace treaties also marked the first use of the term "secularization" (in discussing some church property that was to be distributed among the warring parties).