October 12, 1492: Christopher Columbus arrives in the Caribbean (see issue 35: Christopher Columbus).
October 12, 1518: German reformer Martin Luther undergoes an excruciating interview about his 95 Theses (posted one year earlier) with Cardinal Thomas Cajetan inAugsburg. It was so painful, Luther later recalled, that he could not even ride a horse because his bowels ran freely from morning to night (see issue 34: Luther: The Early Years).
October 12, 1971: The rock musical "Jesus Christ Superstar" debuts on Broadway.
December 12, 1189: King Richard I "the Lion Hearted" leaves England on the Third Crusade to retake Jerusalem, which had fallen to Muslim general Saladin in 1187 (see issue 40: The Crusades).
December 12, 1582: Spanish General Fernando Alvarez de Toledo (also known as the Duke of Alva) dies. The duke had been sent, along with 10,000 troops, by King Philip II of Spain to quell the Reformation in Holland. The duke's "Council of Blood" was responsible for some 18,000 deaths.