October 12, 1492: Christopher Columbus arrives in the Caribbean (see issue 35: Christopher Columbus).
October 12, 1518: German reformer Martin Luther undergoes an excruciating interview about his 95 Theses (posted one year earlier) with Cardinal Thomas Cajetan inAugsburg. It was so painful, Luther later recalled, that he could not even ride a horse because his bowels ran freely from morning to night (see issue 34: Luther: The Early Years).
October 12, 1971: The rock musical "Jesus Christ Superstar" debuts on Broadway.
October 28, 312: According to tradition, on this date the 32-year-old Roman emperor Constantine defeated Maxentius at Milvian Bridge. Before the battle, Constantine had seen the symbol of Jesus, chi-rho, in a vision, accompanied with the words "By this sign conquer." He is considered Rome's first Christian emperor (see issue 57: Converting the Empire).
October 28, 1646: At Nonantum, Massachusetts, missionary John Eliot preaches the first worship service for Native Americans in their native language. ...