1. Eternal conscious physical and spiritual torment.

The damned in hell will suffer in body and soul forever. Advocates: John Blanchard, Donald Carson, Ajith Fernando, John Gerstner, Robert Morey, J. I. Packer, David Pawson, and Robert Peterson.

2. Eternal conscious spiritual torment.

The unsaved will suffer spiritual or psychological torment rather than physical torment.Advocates: Murray Harris, Anthony Hoekema, and Peter Toon.

3. Eternal separation from God.

This less specific way of talking about hell is relational, stressing the terrible fate of never-ending loss of communion with God.Advocates: Kendall Harmon, Peter Head, and Alec Motyer.

4. Conditional immortality.

Souls are not inherently immortal, but persons are granted immortality by God when they are justified. In contrast, the unsaved do not receive the gift of immortality and ultimately will cease to exist.Advocates: Robert Brow, Earle Ellis, Edward Fudge, Michael Green, Clark Pinnock, John Wenham, and Nigel Wright.

5. Annihilationism.

The final extinction of the wicked. Evangelicals who propound annihilationism usually do so from a conditionalist foundation. Consequently, The Nature of Hell uses the term conditionalism to denote belief in both conditional immortality and the ultimate annihilation of the lost.—Summarized from The Nature of Hell

Related Elsewhere

Be sure to read the related stories to this sidebar, " Undying Worm, Unquenchable Fire | Will unbelievers endure eternal torment or will they be annihilated? An assessment of the Evangelical Alliance's The Nature of Hell" and " Rightly Dividing the Hell Debate | Key Advocates and Writings."

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Coming to Terms
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October 23, 2000

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