October 10, 1560: Dutch theologian Jacob Arminius, the founder of a theology that challenged Reformed assumptions, is born in Oudewater, Netherlands.
October 10, 1821: Law student Charles Finney, 29, goes into the woods near his home to settle the question of his soul's salvation. That night, he experienced a dramatic conversion, full of what seemed "waves of liquid love throughout his body." Finney later became one of American history's most influential (and controversial) revivalists and purportedly converted of 500,000 people (see issue 20: Charles Grandisen Finney).
October 25, 431: The Council of Ephesus replaces Nestorius with a new patriarch of Constantinople. Nestorius was anathematized for supposedly holding the belief that two separate persons indwelled the incarnate Christ. Historians question whether he actually believed this, but he was nevertheless deposed. (see issue 51: Heresy in the Early Church).
October 25, 1400: English poet Geoffrey Chaucer dies in London, having abruptly stopped writing his famous Canterbury Tales some time before. Though not ...