Lost But Still There
Loss of the Self: In Literature and Art, by Wylie Sypher (Random House, 1962, 179 pp., $4), is reviewed by Robert M. Davies, Professor of English, Thiel College, Greenville, Pennsylvania.

The Puritans thought themselves wretched sinners in the sight of God, but without serious qualms they cut off the head of Charles I. This was the paradox that so intrigued Macaulay in considering the Puritans: their almost abject self-denial because they were sinful human beings, yet their self-investiture as political regents for Almighty God because they were his sons.

Is man a little lower than the angels, or is he the dust of the earth? In this highly recommended book, Wylie Sypher follows the great change that has occurred in man’s concept of himself since the early nineteenth century. Then the Romantic hero was at the very center of the universe, and, in a measure of speech, he almost became his own universe. His personal emotions, seeking unbounded personal freedom, knew no restrictions.

But in seeking freedom, he modified and attacked the social and political systems so that increasingly he was swallowed up by the statistical mass man his own liberal statism created.

Building upon this historical background, Sypher shows the recent struggle of literature and art to find the authentic self. The existentialists, says Sypher, always assumed that the self has an identity, but the great question has been whether one is being honest in finding it.

Now, however, we are in post-existentialism, and the question arises: What if the self has only an uncertain existence? Suppose the realities of our situation seem to be more actual than the self on which these experiences are imposed? This is the question treated in what has come to be called modern anti-literature.

It is Sypher’s belief that the great creative artists and writers always reveal, without perhaps knowing why or how, the latest scientific discoveries and theories. In this respect, the dissolution of the Romantic hero occurred at the same time science was beginning to question the law of cause and effect in the physical world. For cause and effect is man’s rationalized selection of certain sequences which he thinks he understands. It is now understood that simple chance may actually be more operative in nature than cause and effect. The law of entropy, furthermore, asserts that the universe is constantly drifting toward an unstructured state of equilibrium that is total.

These laws find expression in modern literature to the effect that the destiny of man is obliteration, and our life only a brief rebellion against the randomness into which things are ebbing.

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Yet surprisingly, says Sypher, modern anti-literature with its anti-heroes and nihilism and emphasis upon man’s absurd condition cannot really escape an affirmation: even after the self has shriveled, the human remains. “To repeat: we have an existence, however unwillingly, after we have lost an identity; and we do not seem to be able to diminish this existence below a certain point” (p. 154).

It is not likely that readers of CHRISTIANITY TODAY will agree at all with the efforts Sypher then makes to set up some kind of humanism assimilating various strands of Hindu de-personalization, Martin Buber’s I-Thou philosophy, and Camus’ existentialism. But they will find in this book an admirably lucid account from a non-theological point of view of many of the spiritual implications in the crosscurrents of modern literature, art, science, philosophy, and political science.


Cambridge Shocker
Soundings: Essays Concerning Christian Understanding, edited by A. R. Vidler (Cambridge, 1962, 268 pp., $3.95), is reviewed by J. D. Douglas, British Editorial Director, CHRISTIANITY TODAY.

An intentional shocker. Ten collaborating theologians, “concerned about the dangerous complacency in the religious world,” tackle such topics as the Bible, the function and value of prayer, the malaise of natural theology, and the science-religion issue. H. E. Root refreshingly outlines the dilemma of philosophical theology confronted by the pitfalls of metaphysical speculation, but after a sly dig at “fashionable biblical theology” (undefined further), the shock treatment begins with: “It is by no means clear that anything like Christian faith in the form we know it will ever again be able to come alive for people of our own time …” (page 6). J. S. Habgood observes: “Theologians want to find a position which is secure against any possible advances in scientific knowledge,” and G. W. H. Lampe makes the misleading statement: “… The religious axiom that God ‘will by no means clear the guilty’ has been dramatically disproved.” Yet H. W. Montefiore unquestionably accepts the Virgin Birth (p. 170).

H. A. Williams is the debunker par excellence of old-time morality. After showing that man’s unworthiness before God has been overstressed in the Book of Common Prayer (the Romans do it better), he argues that the individual who refuses to steal under certain circumstances is not moral but just plain chicken. In citing two incidents from recent films, he approves fornication as a healing agency glorifying to God. About lust he writes: “The practice of religion can be a form of lust.… First of all, I make an idol which I call Jesus of Nazareth or the Ascended Lord. Then I try to give myself value by identifying myself with the idol I have made. When the living me at times bursts through, and I become more than my own idol, I consider that I have sinned” (p. 89). Williams goes on to give “Our Lady” a tendentious boost and says he regularly “asks for her prayers.” Prudently he declines to “identify her place in the scheme of salvation.” On page 78, after attributing to Freud a theory formulated earlier and better by Dostoevsky, he strikingly points out we use so much energy keeping in fetters the demon lurking inside us that we experience “the dullness and deadness of many good Christian people.”

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The writers have a yen for labyrinthine sentences which leave precise meanings obscure, and even shorter ones baffle, chiefly through ambiguity—e.g. this from G. F. Woods’s essay on “The Transcendent”: “Invincible ignorance of what is not there to be known is not a reasonable ground for depression.”

“Not everyone will agree with the authors’ viewpoints,” says the publishers’ announcement, complacently. Just so. That such self-consciously radical thinking should come from the arid fastnesses of Cambridge University is not surprising-academic freedom is a cherished principle; that it (except for one essay) should have come from Anglican clergymen who have subscribed the Thirty-nine Articles is incredible.


With Notes
The Oxford Annotated Bible, edited by Herbert G. May and Bruce M. Metzger (Oxford, 1962, 1544 pp. plus maps with index, $7.95), is reviewed by Samuel Schultz, Professor of Bible and Theology, Wheaton College, Wheaton, Illinois.

The Oxford Annotated Bible (RSV), with cross references and running commentary in the form of notes placed at the foot of each page, is designed to aid the layman in reading and study to gain a fuller understanding of the Bible. The format is excellent. Special features in this edition include: articles on how to read and understand the Bible, the history of the English Bible, and the geography, history, and archaeology of the Bible lands; chronological tables of rulers and tables of weights and measures; and new full-color Bible maps with a three-dimensional effect. This edition represents the scholastic efforts of an impressive list of prominent biblical scholars.

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The documentary theory provides the framework for the interpretative helps offered the layman in his study of the Bible. With biblical criticism in a state of flux, this theory of documents as reflected here has shifted from Wellhausenism and literary criticism to individual units of tradition as projected in current biblical studies in the light of ancient near-eastern documents discovered in recent decades.

On the basis of this theory, the reader is carefully instructed that the opening chapters of Genesis are “not to be read as history” nor to “be dismissed as childish myths”; that the patriarchal narratives “contain genuine historical memories” preserved “not for history but for religion”; that in the story of the Exodus and the settlement in Canaan we come nearer to historical light, though we are still dealing with idealized history “into which the legal sections of the Old Testament have been fitted”; that in the books of Samuel “we have much good history”; and that in the “stories of Elijah and Elisha there are legendary elements.”

This viewpoint of the theory of documents is reflected in the footnotes and introductions as follows:

1. Predictions are dated after the events occurred: Deuteronomy 28:47, 48 reflects the fall of Jerusalem in 586 B.C.2 Samuel 7:1–29 is a late theological commentary inserted into an early historical source; Nathan the prophet is used as a mouthpiece of the author, who may have been dreaming of a literal restoration of the kingdom of David. 1 Kings 13:2 is dated after Josiah’s time. Isaiah 9:2–7, filled with borrowed phrases referring to the Davidic monarchy, is a passage which may originally have celebrated the accession of a Judean king, perhaps Hezekiah. In the present context it describes the coming Messiah as the ideal king (the king [v. 6] representing the best qualities of Israel’s heroes).

2. Miracles are regarded as projections of the writer’s beliefs: Joshua 10:11—“There were more who died because of hailstones” is a characteristic expression of the writer’s belief that Israel’s victories were miracles accomplished by the Lord’s intervention rather than by the people’s skill in warfare. 1 Kings 17:1–24—the element of the miraculous in the stories (of Elijah and Elisha) must be accepted as an integral part of the writer’s method. 1 Kings 4:1–8:6—in ancient times, miracle stories were considered to be one of the best ways of portraying the importance of a religious leader; we are fortunate in having preserved for us this fine collection of prophetic lore.

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3. Events and conditions portrayed in a historical setting in the Bible are frequently regarded as the ideas of late writers reflecting their own times: Exodus 25–31; 35–40; Leviticus 1–27; Numbers 1–10—this material, Document P, comes from priestly writers from the time of the Exile, although the “compiler … has relied upon independent source materials, such as the so-called Holiness Code, and upon numerous traditions which reach back to ancient times.” Numbers 1:5–15—this old name list reflects the twelve-tribe organization instituted in Joshua’s time (Josh. 24). Numbers 2:1–34—the priestly writer conceives the congregation as arranged symmetrically around the tent of meeting. 1 Chronicles 13:1–4–in the time of David, the distinction between priests and Levites did not exist. 1 Chronicles 15:1–24—note the emphasis on the Levites who did not exist as a special class in David’s time; the musical arrangements here set forth were largely drawn from the practice in the chronicler’s own day. Daniel 1–12—this book appears under the name Daniel; the author was a pious Jew living under the persecution of Antiochus Epiphanes, 167–164 B.C.; the six stories and four dream-visions, which come from times of national or community tribulation, are not actual history but, rather, symbolic interpretations of current history.

4. Dogmatic interpretations are based on the assumption that the documentary theory is essentially sound: Ezra 3:1—the law of Moses is not our Pentateuch but the body of laws associated with Moses’ name. Joshua 1:8—“this book of the law” means the legal provisions of the book of Deuteronomy. 2 Kings 22:8–10—the scroll almost certainly contained the earliest form of our present book of Deuteronomy, as subsequent references in this and the following chapters will show.

Constructively the reader of this Annotated Bible is advised that “in this book are the living oracles of God, which may speak to and nourish our spirit when we approach them in true devotion and humility.… In both Testaments God is revealed as compassionate and saving.… The saving character of God was revealed in bringing Israel out of Egypt; but it was revealed on a new level at Golgotha” (p. 1515). In these aspects this study Bible represents a marked improvement over the use of Scripture of several decades ago by the Wellhausenist scholars.

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Reading for Perspective


Preaching for Tethered Man, by Theodore Heimarck (Augsburg, $3.75). Twelve sermons which show the path of freedom to men tethered by fear and darkness.

The Teaching Office in the Reformed Tradition, by Robert W. Henderson (Westminster, $6.50). A historical survey of what happened to “Calvin’s” ecclesiastical teaching office in Scottish and American Presbyterianism.

The Natural and the Supernatural Jew, by Arthur A. Cohen (Pantheon, $6). Author defines the theological Jew as one aware of his divine calling, and searches for him in the writings of such men as Martin Buber, Will Herberg, Abraham Heschel, and Mordecai Kaplan.

A Pioneer Work
World Civilization, 2 volumes, by Albert Hyma (Eerdmans; Volume I, revised, 1962, $5; Volume II, 1961, $5; also in paperback at $2 and $2.50 respectively), is reviewed by Milford F. Henkel, Chairman, Division of Social Science, Malone College, Canton, Ohio.

When a professor of history at a secular university attempts to write a work on world history from a Christian viewpoint, it is indeed news. This is one of the few serious attempts to interrelate a Christian world view with the facts of history produced in this century. In view of this purpose, then, one does not expect Dr. Hyma to write from an objective historical viewpoint. He does not profess to do so and would seriously question whether such a position is possible for anyone, and especially for a Christian.

Dr. Hyma is not a novice in the field of history and world history. He has taught history at the University of Michigan for many years and has produced more than 30 volumes, including the world history books in the “College Outline Series.” He is a co-author of The Growth of Western Civilization by Boak, Hyma, and Slosson, for many years a standard college textbook. These scholarly works lacked what Dr. Hyma felt was a Christian world viewpoint. His first world history book which approached this was World History, A Christian Interpretation (Eerdmans, 1942), which was designed as a textbook for junior and senior Christian high schools. His new work, the two-volume, 1,200-page World Civilization, is intended for the college level and for the serious student.

In his writing Hyma allows his personality and viewpoints to be known to the reader. Because of this his style is never dry, but is vigorous and interesting. He carefully documents what he says. He sharply differs with some historians, and does not always present his opponents in the best possible light. It is this style which makes his writing so readable—causing his friends to chuckle and his enemies to be perturbed. A good example of this is his reference to Professor Jan Huizinga (Vol. I, Part 2, p. 199). Hyma speaks of Huizinga’s “greatest error” and tells the reader that Huizinga “wrote the following nonsense.” This reviewer agrees with Hyma in rejecting Huizinga’s position, but wishes he had selected a different tone in his writing. Yet the statements are typical of Hyma, and those who know him can almost hear him speaking.

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Many authors of secular world-history books reflect their bias in ignoring the God of creation, in favoring evolution as the only view, in their treatment of Jesus Christ, and in ignoring the contribution of religion to history. Dr. Hyma avoids all these errors. At the same time, all authors have a personal bias, and Dr. Hyma is no exception.

Hyma is committed to the theory of a 24-hour creation day as seen in his textbook and in his recent article in CHRISTIANITY TODAY (Sept. 14, 1962). Many evangelicals might wish he had been broader and had allowed for the possibility of other theories of creation. Is Hyma correct in considering all other viewpoints as compromises with the “Darwinian school”? (See Volume II, Part 5, page 300.)

Any survey, even one 1,200 pages long, must of necessity be selective, and this selectivity often leads to over-simplification. It is relatively easy to note such over-simplifications in any book, but this certainly does not negate the value of the work.

This book lends itself to a Christian interpretation of history far more easily than do other books, and is without doubt the best textbook on the market for a Christian professor of history.

Hyma’s mysticism or neo-Platonism could raise some question: he speaks of the spiritual creation of plants before the earth (Vol. I, Part 1, p. 2), “the double God Elohim” (Vol. I, Part 1, p. 30), and parapsychology (Vol II, Part 5, pp. 281 ff.).

World Civilization is a vigorously written pioneer work which attempts to set forth a Christian approach to history and is one of the best works in its field. The careful scholar would do well to consider Hyma’s views as expressed in this book.


Communism Unraveled
A Study of Communism, by J. Edgar Hoover (Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1962, 212 pp., $3.95), is reviewed by Harold John Ockenga, Pastor, Park Street Church, Boston, Massachusetts.
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This study by J. Edgar Hoover is a most welcome analysis of the entire Communist movement—its philosophy, its strategy and goal, and the danger which it poses to the United States. It is far superior to the author’s previous work, Masters of Deceit, and the study of it should alert many Americans to this world conspiracy. Mr. Hoover, whose knowledge of Communist literature is thorough, has written with great factual accuracy, with astuteness as to Communist teaching and principles, and with appreciation of the Communist purposes. The one weakness we would point out in the book is the lack of footnotes to substantiate the statements made.

The author presents the philosophy of Communism as a system of thought which attempts to determine the reason for man’s existence and man’s relationship to his existence. He points out that Communism, in seeking ultimate truth, embraces a materialism which explains man in terms of dynamic matter alone, thus regarding matter as self-sufficient, self-developing, and self-perpetuating. This rules out a Supreme Being as creator, sustainer, and lawgiver of the universe; rejects the spiritual nature of man, the existence of his soul, and the idea of immortality; and derives moral codes from circumstances rather than from spiritual imperatives. Communism teaches historical materialism. This is the Hegelian dialectical method turned upside down, substituting matter for spirit or mind and applying it to the class conflict which, according to Marx, has existed throughout the ages. The dialectic will end when Communism becomes the final and perfect form of society. Peace is conceived as the victory of Communism over all opposites.

Communism teaches economic determinism: that the nature of society at any given time is the direct result of the means of production; that morality, culture, and the state are derived from the means of production and distribution; and that the forms of society change with the economic upheavals. It advocates violent revolution in which the workers seize control of the state, liquidate their so-called former exploiters, and establish a dictatorship of the proletariat. From then on all efforts are to be directed toward the building of internal state socialism and the bringing about of the world revolution to establish Communism. The final utopian state will be a Communist society of “from each according to his ability and to each according to his need” in which there will be no government, no rulers, no classes, and no exploitation.

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Mr. Hoover points out the errors in the principles and practices of Communism. Among those errors are: (1) No explanation is given for the origin of matter and the cause of its motion. To call matter eternal is obviously to endow it with the attributes of deity. (2) There is failure to recognize that for centuries millions of people have acted upon moral codes derived from spiritual values. The ideals of truth, justice, love, and honor are not illusions. (3) Nothing is explained by the so-called dialectic; it merely describes a condition. It does not tell why motion is upward, or why there is struggle, negation of forces, and the emergence of new forms. (4) It is an error to believe that all of life can be explained in economic terms. The motivation of idealism plays a very important part. (5) In the theory of surplus value no consideration is given to such factors as ingenuity or management, the application of technical or scientific refinements in production, and the use of capital. Actually surplus value is not the only source of society’s wealth other than natural resources. (6) Ignored is the fact that many workers own stock in great companies and have improved their conditions by unemployment insurance, minimum wage regulations, a short work week, Social Security, and numerous other gains; they are not so exploited as they once were. (7) No regard is given to the nature of man, in which egoism is a motivation for both labor and creativity. Communism will break up ultimately upon its erroneous conception of the nature of man.

Mr. Hoover adequately contrasts the philosophy of a free Western society with the Communist view, showing that Western culture is built upon belief in God and in the unique value of man, an absolute standard of morals, and humanitarian, idealistic goals. In discussing the danger to the United States from the Communist party within, the author tells how Communist propaganda is embraced by many who are not Communists or fellow-travelers but are used for the advancement of the party’s purpose. He sees resurgent Communism as an especially great threat to our college youth. He relates the Communists’ methodology in penetrating all phases of American life and sends forth a ringing call to Americans for dedication to freedom, to what we may call Christian principles, and to our historio American philosophy.

This book should have a wide circulation. We unqualifiedly commend it as a correct and accurate presentation of the philosophy of Communism, the danger we face from it, and the necessity of meeting it.

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What One Looks For
Israel in Prophecy, by John F. Walvoord (Zondervan, 1962, 138 pp., $2.50), is reviewed by Charles De Santo, Assistant Professor of Old Testament, Wheaton College, Illinois.

Dr. Walvoord believes that the Abrahamic Covenant is unconditional and has a definite application to the nation of Israel. Since the Jews have already returned to Palestine and the “powers of the north” (Russia and China) have increased their diabolical influence in the world, Dr. Walvoord looks forward to the consummation of things in the immediate future.

The reviewer, however, found only the first chapter of this book to have any validity. In it the author gives a good summary of the new state of Israel with all its military, economic, educational, and religious gains. The rest of the book gives cause for numerous objections. In the Preface Dr. Walvoord says: “The discussion has centered in Biblical exposition rather than in a comparison of works and ideas of theological and Biblical scholars.” Dr. Walvoord does just this, but he confines himself to the framework of premillennial exegesis and refers only occasionally to amillennial exegetes. He completely ignores the host of modern exegetes who have written on this subject. Many of the so-called “prophecies” which he applies to the Parousia and the Millennial Kingdom, when considered in their historical context, were, in part at least, fulfilled in Old Testament times. Many others, such as Isaiah 35:5, 6, were quoted by our Lord in Matthew 11:5, 6 as having been fulfilled during his earthly ministry.

On several occasions Dr. Walvoord says that he sees no reason why Scripture and prophecy should not be taken in their literal sense. He objects to what he calls “spiritualizing”; yet this is precisely what he does when he “interprets” the Old Testament. He takes Old Testament passages and applies them to Christ. This is what the amillennialist does, also. They differ merely in their “interpretation.” Dr. Walvoord has a convenient hermeneutical system which permits him to interpret Scripture to suit his system. For example, he says that God promised that there would always be a Davidic descendant upon the throne, but he is embarrassed by the absence of Davidic kings during and subsequent to the captivity. Fortunately Hosea prophesied that this would happen (3:4, 5). On pages 91 and 92 he cites a passage in Acts 15:14–18 which is quoted from Amos 9:11, 12. It seems clear to the reviewer that this has direct bearing on the problem of Gentile admission into the Church, and James employs it in this manner. James’s meaning and not Amos’ contextual meaning is the one the passage should retain.

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Dr. Walvoord’s thesis will not hold up apart from his “special non-historical hermeneutical” approach. That there are passages in the Old Testament and the New Testament which refer to the restoration of things after the Parousia of our Lord cannot be denied—this he makes clear. Unfortunately, this reviewer cannot agree with Dr. Walvoord’s treatment of “Israel in Prophecy.”

If one is looking for the Dallas premillennial dispensational position on prophecy, this is a good book to read. It states this clearly and concisely.


‘Get Your Program Here’
Religion in American Public Schools, by R. H. Dierenfield (Public Affairs Press, 1962, 115 pp., $3.25), is reviewed by William G. Reitzer, editorial department, CHRISTIANITY TODAY.

The author, associate professor of education at Macalester College (St. Paul, Minnesota), sent questionnaires to a select 4,000 school superintendents throughout the nation asking about Bible reading, prayer, religious courses, lunchtime blessing, holiday observances, released time, distribution of religious literature on school premises, and other religious practices in their school systems. The replies he received from the 54.57 per cent who responded provide the main ingredients for this volume. The remainder of the book consists of brief histories (1) of religion in American schools, (2) of legislation in the states, and (3) of state and federal court decisions.

Clear, concise, and containing 27 full-page charts, the book will be found to be easily digestible by Mr. Average Citizen. He will learn many helpful facts, such as the extent of homeroom devotional periods (in 33.16 per cent of the school systems), the extent of Bible reading (41.74 per cent), and the extent of Bible courses available (4.51 per cent).

It does appear that the case for complete separation of church and state is more fully stated than the case for limited separation. And in the section “State Court Decisions,” the recent important opinion of Maryland’s highest court favoring Bible reading (Murray v. Curlett) goes unmentioned, whereas the important Pennsylvania case taking an opposite view (Schempp v. Abington Township—Schempp is misspelled “Schlempp” in the book) receives a prominent paragraph. Perhaps it is only because the reviewer stands on the “pro” side of the released-time issue that the chapter on this subject appears to give preponderance to the evidence and sentiment for the “con” side (where Dierenfield seems to stand). Nevertheless, Dierenfield’s presentation has a commendable measure of objectivity.

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In view of the three “religion in public school” cases currently before the United States Supreme Court, Professor Dierenfield’s little book will serve as an excellent “program” for all who are being drawn to the sidelines of this crucial religio-political contest now in a most decisive stage.


Book Briefs

The Star over the Kremlin, by William P. Strube, Jr., (Baker, 1962, 108 pp., $1.95). Popular, anti-Communistic inducements; more excited than exciting.

Natural Theology, by J. F. Doncell, S. J. (Sheed & Ward, 1962, 178 pp., $3). A Roman Catholic philosophical textbook in which one Roman Catholic shows how he demonstrates God’s existence by unaided reason.

Men Aflame, by David R. Enlow (Zondervan, 1962, 120 pp., $2.50). A story not so much about the Christian Business Men’s Committee International as about the results of individual businessmen’s witness to Christ.

Trumpets in the Morning, by Reuben K. Youngdahl (Augustana, 1962, 167 pp., $3). Sermons, about as good as sermons without texts can be.

Strangers No Longer, by Peter Day (Morehouse-Barlow, 1962, 174 pp., $3.95). A study of the Church regarded as the dialectical product of the encounter between the Kingdom of God and the world.

The Life of Christ, by Charles L. Allen (Revell, 1962, 157 pp., $2.50). The rearrangement of the four Gospels into one story in the belief that only thus is the story complete.

Recent Studies in Philosophy and Theology, by David Hugh Freeman (Presbyterian and Reformed, 1962, 150 pp., $3.75). A lucid examination of the relationship of theology and philosophy in the Neo-Thomism of Gilson and Maritain, the Neo-Augustinianism of Dooyeweerd, and the Neo-Existentialism of Tillich.

Altar Prayers for the Church Year, by Clemens Henry Zeidler (Augsburg, 1962, 200 pp., $6.50). Altar prayers for the entire liturgical year; suitable for use in the pulpits of less liturgical churches. A fine production.

Ecce Homo, by Joseph Jobé (Harper & Row, 1962, 189 pp., $15). The life of Jesus as seen by artists through the centuries and the world over. The book itself is a thing of fine craftsmanship.


Mark—Gospel of Action, by Ralph G. Turnbull (Baker, 1962, 86 pp., $1). A bird’s-eye view of Mark. Excellent for study groups.

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Our Church Plans for Adults, by Joseph John Hanson (Judson, 1962, 112 pp., $1.25). A manual of valuable suggestions and advice on how to promote adult Christian education in the church.

Current Books and Pamphlets (Missionary Research Library, 1962, 36 pp., $.50). A selected list of books and pamphlets added during the first six months of 1962 to the Missionary Research Library of New York.

No Other Foundation, Commemorative Essays on Menno Simons, by Walter Klaassen and others (Bethel College, North Newton, Kan., 1962, 76 pp., $1.50). A series of lectures which contribute to the rediscovery of the Anabaptist-Mennonite heritage occurring in our time.

If You Marry Outside Your Faith, by James A. Pike (Harper & Row, 1962, 159 pp., $1.25). A provocative discussion of mixed marriages with special reference to Protestant-Roman Catholic combines. Revised edition of 1954 publication.

Understanding Communism, by James D. Bales (Baker, 1962, 88 pp., $1). A quite objective and serviceable study manual for church groups. Marred by unpolished writing.

Communism: Who? What? Why?, by Henlee H. Barnette (Broadman, 1962, 64 pp., $.95). Two hundred questions and answers about the strategy, the tactics, and the historical, factual situation of Communism at home and abroad, by an author who knows his field, spent a month in the U.S.S.R., and interviewed Khrushchev for 2½ hours.


What Americans Believe and How They Worship, by J. Paul Williams (Harper & Row, 1962, 530 pp., $6). Covers too much and too little. No mention is made of Reformed churches but Alcoholics Anonymous and Beat Zen are included. The author’s evaluations are cavalier and careless. Revised and enlarged; first printed in 1952.

A Modern Philosophy of Religion, by Samuel M. Thompson (Regnery, 1962, 601 pp., $7.50). A philosophy of religion which is admittedly committed to theism and carries the reader through the development of a positive argument. First published in 1955.

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