A Wrinkle in Time
by Madeleine L'Engle
Random House, Inc, 1998
240 pp.; $5.99

The High King
by Lloyd Alexander
Yearling Books
304 pp.; $5.99

The Weirdstone
of Brisingamen:
A Tale of Alderley

by Alan Garner
Magic Carpet Books
288 pp.; $6.00

The Earthsea Cycle

by Ursula K. Le Guin
Simon Pulse
288 pp.; $6.99

Early one morning last week, a Christianity Today International executive joined thousands of other Americans by driving out to a major retail chain to snag a newly advertised $15 copy of the The Lord of the Rings: The Two Towers DVD. He arrived to find the bins already cleaned out.

Had he then headed to his local bookstore, our colleague would likely have found a similarly brisk trade in Tolkien's trilogy itself. Not that those books needed Peter Jackson's help: They long ago entered the rarified ranks of the blockbuster bestsellers.

But the millions of DVDs and books sold represent only the "camel's nose" of Tolkien's influence under the tent of popular culture. Because that brilliant, devoutly Catholic Oxford don created not only a phenomenon, but an entire genre. Little did he know, as he sat with C.S. Lewis in the latter's Magdalen College rooms in 1936 and determined to write "the sort of books they liked to read,"that within a half-century, entire bookstore shelves would groan under the offerings of his admiring imitators.

In Christian History's new special issue dedicated to Tolkien, author Aaron Belz provides a handy guide for readers who want to sift the wheat from the chaff in this abundant harvest of "Tolkien-esque" fantasy novels. Here is his survey of the best of these novels—divided into children's books and books for older readers:

* * *

When The Lord of the Rings was published in 1954-55, nothing like it had ever been seen. This epic tale in its elaborately devised world sent shock waves through the publishing world. It was, in the words of Tolkien biographer Tom Shippey, "a one-item category." But soon, it was clear that the category was destined to overflow. J.R.R. Tolkien had done nothing less than found a new genre.

There were fantasy writers before Tolkien—notably George MacDonald, with Lilith, Phantastes, and his Curdie stories. But The Hobbit gave epic fantasy its shape, creating Middle-earth and populating it with halflings and monsters that would become stock figures for scores of authors after him. What Tolkien had created, as George R. R. Martin has said, was "a fully realized secondary universe, an entire world with its own geography and histories and legends, wholly unconnected to our own, yet somehow just as real."

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Understanding how Tolkien did this is key to knowing both why his stories are valuable literature and why so many people have imitated him.

Raiders of the Lost Word
One element of Tolkien's genius was his knowledge of philology, the history of language.

Although casual readers might assume words such as hobbit and orc, and town names such as Withywindle, derive from sheer imagination, Shippey demonstrates in his J.R.R. Tolkien: Author of the Century (2000) that the language of Middle-earth has roots in the real world.

Early English was largely oral; we do not have a complete record of the way Norse, Celtic, German, and other languages shifted and settled to form Modern English. Like geologists imagining continuities in an incomplete fossil record, philologists conjecture what kinds of words might have appeared in intermediary stages, in some cases being able to identify words that must have been, even though they aren't recorded. This is how Tolkien arrived at much of the language of Middle-earth.

Tolkien also showed genius in the way he wove together themes and storylines into symphonic movements, a technique Shippey terms "narrative interlace" and also identifies in Beowulf (a much earlier example of epic fantasy).

Narrative interlace allows a lot of action to happen simultaneously and to be told out of sequence. It also allows for the kind of geographically expansive narrative necessary for epic fantasy. The effect is dramatic, enabling a multi-threaded plot to drift through multiple volumes without seeming ponderous.

After J.R.R., the deluge
As these two elements are what made it possible for Tolkien to create an entirely separate world, they are also key elements in the fantasy writing of Tolkien's legion followers. For better or worse, fans have been so moved by Tolkien, so addicted to the forests and winding roads of Middle-earth, that they have invented their own worlds. Although there are scores of obvious, middling imitations—series such as Terry Brooks's popular Sword of Shannara and Kenneth Flint's Sidhe—there are a number of worthy suitors as well.

One distinct strain is books geared for younger readers. The true primogenitor of these might be C.S. Lewis, whose Chronicles of Narnia were published around the same time as Tolkien's trilogy, though well after The Hobbit. (A strong case might be made for Tolkien's imprint on Lewis's imagination, however.) Soon there followed Alan Garner's Alderley Tales, which includes The Weirdstone of Brisingamen (1960) and The Moon of Gomrath (1963).

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Based in obscure Celtic mythology, Garner's story tells of two contemporary English children who, while on holiday, discover a powerful moonstone that belongs to a friendly wizard. Their attempt to return the stone is thwarted by an evil witch, but the forces of good ultimately prevail.

Rising Dark & Wrinkled Time
Susan Cooper's five-volume Dark Is Risingeries (1965-77) tells an almost identical story: children vacationing in Cornwall discover an ancient map that leads into a world of Arthurian enchantment; eventually, the boy hero discovers that he is last of the "Old Ones."

A similar entry in American fiction is Madeleine L'Engle's ever-popular Murray Family series (1962-78), which begins with A Wrinkle In Time, the tale of a boy and girl who go searching through time for their scientist-father, battling the forces of evil along the way.

Prydain, Anthropos, and Potter
More examples are found among the works of Anne McCaffrey, who has written more multi-volume series (13) than most authors have books. Although McCaffrey's writing is suspiciously prolific and not at all comparable to Tolkien's in quality or depth, there can be no doubt that her dragon-ridden world is inspired by Middle-earth.

Others include Lloyd Alexander's five-book Prydain series (1964-68), the final book of which won the Newberry Medal, and John White's six-volume Archives of Anthropos, a distinctly Christian work which begins with The Tower of Geburah (1978).

It is impossible to survey the epic fantasy genre without mentioning the latest flame in the fire, J.K. Rowling's Harry Potter collection (1997- ). Rowling herself acknowledges a debt to Lewis, not Tolkien, and her stories fall neatly within the children's-fantasy paradigm established above: school-aged kids, minding their own business, find themselves magically transported into a world of witches and wizards. There they discover that they're actually worth something—that they are powerful, wonderful, and necessary.

Earthsea to Discworld
Tolkien has also made possible thousands of fantasy titles for adult readers. The best of these is Ursula K. Le Guin's Earthsea series, which began in 1968 with A Wizard of Earthsea and recently expanded to a fifth volume.

Le Guin is nearly Tolkien's equal in terms of prose and narrative. She invents a world similar to Middle-earth, and her hero is a halfling—a boy, actually, endowed with magical powers. The Earthsea series is not as philosophically weighty as The Lord of the Rings (nor even as serious as Le Guin's later works such as The Dispossessed, which speculates quite convincingly on the nature of time), but it is highly engaging.

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Another worthy entry is Stephen Donaldson's three-volume Thomas Covenant series (1977), which almost seems a response—or as Tom Shippey puts it, a "rebuttal"—to The Lord of the Rings. Donaldson's hero is an adult American and not at all exemplary in terms of moral fiber or courage. Others too numerous to mention include Orson Scott Card's Alvin Maker (1987-98) and Terry Pratchett's spoof, Discworld (1983- ).

Each of these transports the reader into a carefully detailed alternate world. The best of them bring the "realities" of their world to bear on our own, leaving the reader richer for the sojourn.

But none would be what they are without the pattern of the acknowledged Father of Fantasy, J.R.R. Tolkien.

Aaron Belz is a freelance writer and a doctoral student at Saint Louis University, Saint Louis, Missouri.

Related Elsewhere:

The current issue of Christian History, from which this article originally appeared, is devoted to J.R.R. Tolkien, The Man Behind the Myth.
Our sister publication Books & Culture asked in its January/February 2002 issue if Tolkien should be acknowledged as the foremost author of the twentieth century.

Christianity Today presented last year a three-part online conversation between two authors whose books discuss the faith of J.R.R. Tolkien and the religious values underpinning The Lord of the Rings. The installments included:

Why The Lord of the Rings Is Dangerous | The authors of Tolkien's Ordinary Virtues and J.R.R. Tolkien's Sanctifying Myth talk about the Christian life in Faerie. (December 18, 2002)
Does The Lord of the Rings Teach Salvation By Works? | The authors of Tolkien's Ordinary Virtues and J.R.R. Tolkien's Sanctifying Myth talk about whether Tolkien was too ignorant of evil and other subjects. (December 19, 2002)
Hobbits Aren't Fence-Sitters | The authors of Tolkien's Ordinary Virtues and J.R.R. Tolkien's Sanctifying Myth discuss why Tolkien hated modernity and thinking about evil—and whether he was right to do so. (December 20, 2002)
Previous articles about J.R.R. Tolkien by Christianity Today include:
Christian History Corner: Saint J.R.R. the Evangelist | Tolkien wanted his Lord of the Rings to echo the "Lord of Lords"—but do we have ears to hear? (March 4, 2003)
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Christian History Corner: 9/11, History, and the True Story | Wartime authors J.R.R. Tolkien and C.S. Lewis help put 9/11 in perspective (Sept. 13, 2002)
Christian History Corner: Intro to the Inklings | C.S. Lewis's intellect was stimulated at one of the most fascinating extracurricular clubs ever (May 18, 2001)

Earlier articles on the Lord of the Rings movies include:

Film Forum: A Season of Saviors | Christian media reviewers take on The Lord of the Rings: The Two Towers. (Dec. 19, 2002)
Soul Wars, Episode Two | The second Lord of the Rings film raises the spiritual stakes (Dec. 18, 2002)
Books & Culture Corner: Saint Frodo and the Potter Demon | The Lord of the Rings and Harry Potter series spring from the same source (Feb. 18, 2002)
Film Forum: The Fellowship of the Raves | Critics grope for superlatives for The Fellowship of the Ring. (Dec. 21, 2001)
Film Forum: Gandalf and the Gamblers | As everyone talks about The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring, critics also get around to reviewing Ocean's Eleven, In the Bedroom, and The Business of Strangers. (Dec. 13, 2001)
Film Forum: First Looks at a Feature Fantasy | Early reviews for Fellowship of the Ring are in. (Dec. 6, 2001)
Lord of the Megaplex | The onscreen Fellowship of the Ring launches a new wave of Tolkienmania (Nov. 11, 2001)

Previous Christianity Today articles on C.S. Lewis include:

Why There Are Seven Chronicles of Narnia | A British scholar discovers the hidden design of C.S. Lewis' perennially popular series. (April 25, 2003)
The Dour Analyst and the Joyous Christian | In the realm of mental balance and personal peace, Sigmund Freud had nothing on C.S. Lewis. (April 19, 2002)
Two Cultural Giants | Both Sigmund Freud and C.S. Lewis were emotionally wounded as boys and struggled with depression as men. But a worldview can make a tremendous difference. An interview with Armand Nicholi Jr. (April 19, 2002)
Wisdom in a Time of War | What Oswald Chambers and C.S. Lewis teach us about living through the long battle with terrorism. (Jan. 4, 2002)
Forget 'Normal' | C.S. Lewis's warning against panic during World War II resonates in our new crisis. (Oct. 19, 2001)
Aslan Is Still on the Move | There's too little evidence to prove that anyone is 'de-Christianizing' C.S. Lewis. (July 31, 2001)
Mere Marketing? | Publisher, estate under fire for handling of C.S. Lewis's identity. (July 31, 2001)
The War for Narnia Continues | Charles Colson, Andrew Greeley, Frederica Mathewes-Green, and Lauren Winner join the battle—and Doug Gresham comes out to reply. (June 20, 2001)
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Narnia Will Return In New Books | As all of the Inklings' publishers await record interest, HarperCollins seeks to "fill in the gaps" beyond the wardrobe. (May 15, 2001)
Myth Matters | C.S. Lewis bequeathed us a method and a language for sharing the gospel with the modern and postmodern world. (April 17, 2001)
Walking Where Lewis Walked | My reluctant entry into the world of pilgrimage. (Feb. 7, 2000)
Still Surprised by Lewis | Why this nonevangelical Oxford don has become our patron saint" (Sept. 7, 1998)
Jack Is Back | The search for the historical Lewis (Feb. 3, 1997)
C.S. Lewis on Christmas | Lewis summed up Christmas in one sentence: 'The Son of God became a man to enable men to become the sons of God.' (Dec. 16, 1983)

Books and Culture analyzed C.S. Lewis among the postmodernists. Christian History profiled Lewis for its issue on "The 10 Most Influential Christians of the Twentieth Century."

Christian History Corner appears every Friday on Christianity Today's website. Previous editions include:

J.R.R. Tolkien and C.S. Lewis, a Legendary Friendship | A new book reveals how these two famous friends conspired to bring myth and legend—and Truth—to modern readers (Aug. 29, 2003)
The Ten Commandments, How Deep Our Debt | The words of the Decalogue run like a river through not only the church but also English and American history. (August 22, 2003)
Muscular Christianity's Prodigal Son, College Sports | In the wake of a basketball scandal at a prominent Christian university, we take time to remember the Christian roots of college athletics. (August 15, 2003)
Palestinian Christians, Strangers in a Familiar Land | They've called the Holy Land home for centuries, but they've never actually governed themselves. (August 8, 2003)
Liberia's Troubled Past—and Present | The nation's history explains why the current conflict succumbs to, yet simultaneously transcends, the stereotype of African tribal wars. (August 1, 2003)
Medical Missions' African Legacy | For generations, missionary doctors have healed body and soul in Africa. (July 25, 2003)
European Christianity's 'Failure to Thrive' | Why Christendom, born with an imperial bang, is now fading away in an irrelevant whimper. (July 18, 2003)
Where Have All the Classics Gone? | These days it's a triumph when a movie is simply inoffensive. But we can do better than that (July 11, 2003)
From Beer to Bibles to VBS | How America got its favorite summer tradition. (July 3, 2003)
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The African Lion Roars in the Western Church | Anglican liberals are fretting, conservatives rejoicing, and all are scrambling to their history books: whence this new evangelical force on the world scene? (June 27, 2003)
How John Wesley Changed America | His 300th birthday should be a red-letter day on this side of the ocean. After all, we're all Wesleyans now. (June 20, 2003)
Did Eric Rudolph Act in a "Tradition of Christian Terror"? | A historian considers the evidence of the Crusades and the Inquisition (June 13, 2003)
The Ancient Rise and Recent Fall of Tithing | Is yet another time-honored Christian practice fading from view? (June 6, 2003)
When World Leaders Pray, Part II | Tony Blair's spin-doctors worried when he recently "outed" himself as a Christian. But what impact has Christianity really had on our leaders? (May 29, 2003)
The Day the Ransoming Began | A gripping new book details the first American missionary hostage crisis, over 100 years ago. (May 23, 2003)