ARMINIANISM Within the European reformed Protestant tradition, two major viewpoints developed: Arminianism and Calvinism. Arminianism is the viewpoint, named after the Dutch theologian Jacob Arminius (1560–1609), that emphasizes that Jesus died for all mankind (a universal atonement), and that salvation depends upon a human decision to accept or reject God’s gift. In this system, since salvation depends on human choice, so does eternal security; that is, a person can lose his or her salvation. The theology of John Wesley and his followers is considered Arminian. Finney, though from the Calvinistic tradition, held ideas that are considered Arminian; therefore he was criticized by many of his fellow Presbyterians and Congregationalists, many of whom were staunch Calvinists. Many see Finney as an example of the trend in New England Calvinism toward Arminian ideas, and view his revival techniques (called the “new measures”) as evangelistic practices that emphasized human decision in salvation—an Arminian emphasis which is the norm in modern evangelistic revivals. Finney called for decisions on the spot and taught that salvation could be lost. Protestant doctrinal positions all fall within these two limits, or are attempts at finding a compromise between them. Both views claim to most accurately represent biblical teaching. Though many accusations have been made against Arminian theology by Calvinists, implying that it allows humans to overrule God, it can be seen as an attempt to protect the value of human responsibility.

CALVINISM This is the teaching that is based upon the theology of the Protestant reformer John Calvin. In this system, God’s sovereignty is foremost even in personal salvation. Jesus died on the cross for the ...

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