Is it unscriptural for a Christian to be cremated?
—Carol Stanley, Manchester, New Hampshire
The ancient world knew four methods of disposing of the bodies of the dead. Cremation was the normal practice of Greeks and Romans. Many of them believed in the immortality of the soul and saw no reason to give special attention to the body. Hindus, with their doctrine of reincarnation, still practice cremation. At the other extreme were the Egyptians, who mummified their dead, preserving the corpse indefinitely.
As the catacombs in Rome attest, the early Christians insisted on burying their dead. Christian gravesites were called coemeteria (cemeteries), which literally means "sleeping places," reflecting belief in a future resurrection. Early liturgies for the dead included the reading of Scriptures, prayers, hymns, and almsgiving for the poor.
Why were Christians so concerned about proper disposal of the body? Here are four reasons: (1) The body of every human was created by God, bore his image, and deserved to be treated with respect because of this. (2) The centrality of the Incarnation. When the Word became flesh, God uniquely hallowed human life and bodily existence forever. (3) The Holy Spirit indwelt the bodies of believers, making them vessels of honor. (4) As Jesus himself was buried and raised bodily from the dead, so Christians believed that their burial was a witness to the resurrection yet to come.
Of course, many martyrs were burned to death, but Christians believed God would bring them forth unimpaired at the resurrection. "We do not fear any loss from any mode of sepulture," declared Minucius Felix, "but we adhere to the old and better custom of burial." In the context of the early church, when cremation was associated with pagan rituals and unbiblical beliefs, burial seemed to be a more loving and reverent way to bear witness to God's ultimate victory over death.
But what about today? The first cremation in America took place in 1876, accompanied by readings from Charles Darwin and the Hindu scriptures. For many years, relatively few persons (mostly liberals and freethinkers) chose cremation. But that has changed dramatically. Only 5 percent of Americans were cremated in 1962; by 2000 it was 25.5 percent. In Japan, where burial is sometimes illegal, the cremation rate is 98 percent. The rise in cremations reflects many factors: concern for land use; the expense of traditional funerals; the loss of community and a sense of "place" in modern transient society; and New Age-type spiritualities.
While the weight of Christian tradition clearly favors burial, the Bible nowhere explicitly condemns cremation. Since 1963 the Roman Catholic Church has permitted cremation while "earnestly recommending" burial as the preferred mode of disposal. Billy Graham has noted (what Christians have always believed) that cremation cannot prevent a sovereign God from calling forth the dead at the end of time.
The Bible should not be used as a proof text either for the necessity of burial or for "cremation on demand." True, there are several examples of cremation in the Old Testament (Achan, Josh. 7:25; Saul, 1 Sam. 31:12; the King of Edom, Amos 2:1), but they involved God's judgment and curse. When Paul offered his body to be burned (1 Cor. 13:3), he was speaking of martyrdom, not cremation.
When Jesus said, "Let the dead bury the dead," he was describing the cost of discipleship, not the cost or method of funerals.
The real question for Christians is not whether one is buried or cremated but the meaning given to these acts. Our modern funeral customs tend to anesthetize us from the ugly reality of death with soft music, plush carpets, and expensive caskets.
The Presbyterian preacher George Buttrick once said, "There is nothing more incongruous than dressing up a corpse in a tuxedo!" Cremation, too, can be done in ways that desecrate rather than respect the dead. For example, one can now order designer urns in which elements of a loved one's "cremains" are mixed with clay and glazed to create a piece of lovely pottery!
Whether final disposition is by burial or cremation, the Christian church should offer a funeral liturgy in which the reality of death is not camouflaged, and the resurrection of the body is affirmed. We solemnize the departure of our loved ones by reminding ourselves that we brought nothing into this world, and that we can carry nothing out. "Earth to earth, ashes to ashes, dust to dust; in sure and certain hope of the resurrection unto eternal life, through our Lord Jesus Christ."
Timothy George is a CT executive editor and dean of Beeson Divinity School at Samford University.
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Christian History Corner recently looked at "The Cremation Question." Author Elesha Coffman found that firm belief in resurrection hasn't kept Christians from caring—and arguing—about what happens to the bodies of the dead.
See the links below for a variety of Christian views on the subject of cremation:
- American Catholic (current American perspective)
- The Catholic Encyclopedia (early 20th century Catholic perspective)
- Assemblies of God
- Vancouver School of Theology (mainline Canadian and American)
- Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of Australia
- ReligiousTolerance.org (detached comparison)
Christianity Today took an in-depth look at the funeral industry in 1999's "Death, Inc."
Christianity Today articles by Timothy George include:
The 'Baptist Pope'W.A. Criswell showed remarkable openness and flexibility when these traits were rare among evangelicals. (March 5, 2001)
Is the God of Muhammad the Father of Jesus?The answer to this question reveals the heart of our faith. (Feb. 1, 2002)
Does God Hear Muslims' Prayers? | We must remember that God does not deal with theologies; he deals with persons. (Feb. 1, 2002)
Has God Played Fair?Why did an omniscient God create humankind knowing that people, in every generation, would reject him? (Nov. 20, 2001)
Big Picture FaithFrom the first nanosecond to the final cry of victory, and every divine moment between—all is charged with meaning. (Oct. 19, 2000)
Why We Still Need MoodyThe man who invented modern evangelicalism. (Dec. 6, 1999)
A Theology to Die ForTheologians are not freelance scholars of religion, but trustees of the deposit of faith. (Feb. 9, 1998)
Why We Still Need LutherFour hundred fifty years after his death, Martin Luther can still inspire and guide us. (Oct. 28, 19996)
Earlier Good Question columns include:
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