The Renaissance
1450

1455 Gutenberg completes first Bible using movable type

1483 Martin Luther is born

1509 John Calvin is born

1517 Luther posts his "95 Theses" on indulgences in Wittenberg

1521 Luther is excommunicated by the pope; at Diet of Worms, he refuses to recant writings; he begins translating the New Testament into German while hiding in Wartburg Castle

1523 Luther publishes Latin Mass for the church in Wittenberg

1526 Luther publishes German Mass for use in small congregations; Johann Walter becomes "the first Lutheran cantor" in Torgau

c. 1527 Luther writes hymn "A Mighty Fortress"

1529 Luther publishes Large Catechism and Small Catechism

1534 Luther publishes German Bible

1534 Break between Church of England and Roman Catholic Church

1536 Calvin publishes Institutes of the Christian Religion

1538 Walter writes "In Praise of the Noble Art of Music"

1539 Luther preaches at St. Thomas's Church in Leipzig

1543 Copernicus argues that earth revolves around sun

1546 Luther dies

1555 Peace of Augsburg gives Catholic and Lutheran rulers in Germany the right to choose their territories' religion

1585 Johann Heermann, writer of the hymn "Ah, Holy Jesus," is born

1595 Michael Praetorius becomes organist at Wolfenbüttel

c. 1597 The first opera Daphne is performed in Florence, Italy

The Baroque Period
1600

1600 Shakespeare writes Hamlet

1603 Queen Elizabeth I of England dies

1607 Paul Gerhardt, writer of the hymn "O Sacred Head," is born

1611 King James Bible is published

1618 Beginning of the Thirty Years' War in Europe

1636 Heinrich Schütz writes German Requiem

1642 English Civil War begins

1647 Westminster Confession becomes the standard of Presbyterian faith in ...

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